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Banja Luka

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Banja Luka
Бања Лука
Missing image
CityBanjaLuka.png
Image:CityBanjaLuka.png

MayorDragoljub Davidović
Area
 - Total

93.2 km (57.9 mi²)
Population


 - City (2002)
 - Metro (2002)



196,500.
220,000.

Time zoneCentral European: UTC+1

Latitude
Longitude

Template:Coor dm

Missing image
GrbBanjeLuke.PNG
Coat of arms of Banja Luka

Banja Luka is the second largest city in Bosnia and Herzegovina with a population of 196,500 (metro population 220,000). It is also the capital of the Republika Srpska entity and a major center of the region known as Bosanska Krajina. It houses the entity's government, while it is also the center of the Banja Luka Region, and a municipality of the same name. Banja Luka is famous for its culture and history, which dates back to the high middle ages. It is located in northwestern Bosnia, on the river Vrbas.

Contents

Geography and Climate

Geography

Banja Luka covers some 93.2 km (57.9 mi²) of land in northwestern Bosnia on the river Vrbas. Latitude and longitude wise, Banja Luka is located at Template:Coor dm.

The spring of the river Vrbas is located nearby, and the tributary rivers Suturlija, Crkvena, and Vrbanja flow into Vrbas in Banja Luka. Banja Luka also has a number of springs close by.

The area immediately around Banja Luka is woodland, although a bit farther out there are a number of mountains. The city itself is built in the Banja Luka valley, which is located on the transition between high and low mountain areas. The most notable of these mountains are Manjača (1214 meters), Čemernica (1338 meters), and Tisovac (1172 meters). These are all part of the Dinaric Alps mountain range.

Climate

Banja Luka has a continental climate, with harsh winters and warm summers. The warmest month of the year is July, with an average temperature of 20°C (68°F). The coldest month of the year is January, where temperatures reach a near freezing 0.6°C (33°F).

Annual precipitation for Banja Luka is about 988mm. Banja Luka has an average of 52 rain days a year. Due to the city's high latitude, it snows in Banja Luka almost every year as well. Strong winds come from the north and northeast.

History

Banja Luka's history dates back to ancient times. There is substantial evidence of a Roman presence in the region during the first few centuries AD, including an old fort "Kastel" in the center of the city. The area of Banja Luka was wholly in the Roman province of Illyricum, lying on important Roman roads between Dalmatia and Pannonia.

Slavs settled the area in the 7th century a.d., although the exact nature of their migrations remains something of a mystery. What is known is that the first mention of the city dates to 1494, by Vladislav II. The name means "Ban's meadow", from the words ban "a medieval dignitary", and luka "an area close to water". The identity of the ban and the meadow in question remain uncertain, and a popular ethymology combines modern words banja ("bath" or "spa"), and luka ("port"),

One of the first public structures after Katel was Franciscan monastery built in 1378 in Banja Luka’s neighborhood of Petricevac by Bosnian Franciscan and was first of such buildings in Bosnia.

During Ottoman rule, Banja Luka was the seat of the Bosnian pashaluk, and the lords of the region built a nowadays main street in the city. Between 1566 and 1574 Ferhat Pasa Sokolovic, one of the founders of the Banjaluka’s town core, built over 200 projects ranging from artisan and sales shops to wheat warehouses, baths and mosques. Among more important commissions were Ferhadija and Arnaudija mosques during which construction a plumbing infrastructure was laid that served surrounding residential areas. All this stimulated economic and urban development of Banja Luka that soon after became one of the leading commercial and political centers in Bosnia. In 1688 the city was set to the torch by an Austrian army but it quickly recovered. Later periodic intrusions by Austrian army stimulated military developments in Banja Luka which made it a strategic military center. Serbian churches and monastaries near Banja Luka were built in 19 century with the wave of orthodox Serbs migrating from Hercegovina (Hum). Around the same time Sephardic Jews and Trappists migrated to the city that contributed to early industrialization of the region by building mill, brewery, brick factory, textile factory and other important structures. For all its good to the region however, Banja Luka as a city wasn't modernized until rule by Austria-Hungary in the late 19th century.

Austrian occupation brought westernization to Banja Luka. Railroads, schools, factories, and infrastructure appeared and was developed. This led to a modern city that after World War I became the center of the Vrbas province of the 1st Yugoslavia.

During World War II, Banja Luka was occupied by the Croatian Ustasha regime. During this time most noble Banjaluka's Sephardic Jew families were deported to nearby concentration camps Jasenovac and Stara Gradiska. The city was liberated on April 22nd, 1945.

In 1969 devastating earthquake damaged many buildings in Banja Luka. A large building in the center of the town called "Titanik" was razed to the ground and the area was turned into a central public square. With contributions from all Yugoslavian regions, Banja Luka was repaired and rebuilt.

The city underwent considerable changes during the Yugoslav wars. Upon the declaration of establishment of Republika Srpska, Banja Luka became the de facto center of the entity's politics, and in 2003 it officially became the capitol of Republika Srpska. It is estimated that about 70,000 predominantly Bosniak and Bosnian Croat residents were forced to leave the city between 1992-1995 as part of ethnic cleansing campaign of Republika Srpska. Some were taken to a nearby detention camps Manjaca and Omarska. Several Serb Banjalukans who objected the war and the politics of Republika Srpska or those who were dodging the draft of RS army and desperate economic situation during the war also left the city in the period from 1992-1995. Banja Luka's Bosniak and Bosnian Croat population is now much smaller than before the war. Many Serb refugees from Croatia and Bosniak-Croat federation moved to the city in the mid 1990s. As of 2004, one third of its current inhabitants are said to be "refugees" or "displaced persons".

All 16 mosques dating from 15th and 16th century in the city were destroyed in a recent war between 1992 and 1995 by unidentified people at the time supported by the authorities of Republika Srpska as part of their ethnic cleansing campaign. Among the destroyed mosques was Ferhadija mosque protected by UNESCO. Recent attempts to reconstruct the Ferhadija mosque resulted in mass riots by Serb nationalists on 7. May 2001. Some 4,000 Serb rioters beat and stoned three hundred elderly Bosniaks, participants of the ceremony commemorating the laying of the cornerstone for the reconstruction. At least eight people were taken to the Banja Luka hospital for medical treatment. One of them died on May 26 of head injuries.

Demographics

The population of Banja Luka city is about 196,500. Along with the metro area, Banja Luka's population reaches some 220,000 people. Although there is a lack of official statistics on ethnic distribution, there is little doubt that Serbs make up an overwhelming majority in the city. It is said that 65,000 of today's Banja Luka population are refugees or displaced persons. About 20% of Banja Luka's residents are unemployed.

According to the 1991 census, Banja Luka municipality had a population of some 195,139. Of these, 54.6% were Bosnian Serbs, 14.8% were Bosnian Croats, 14.6% were Bosnian Muslims (Bosniaks), 12.1% were "Yugoslavs", and 3.9% registered as others.

Historical population

The dynamic of Banjaluka's demographics in last 100 years is most noticeable in its ethnic composition. At the first census, conducted by Austro-Hungarian authorities in 1879, Banja Luka had the following religious (ethnic) composition: Out of its 13,566 citizens, 67.71% were Muslims (Bosniaks), 19.8% were Orthodox (Bosnian Serbs and Montenegrins) and 10.52% were Catholics (Bosnian Croats). The Bosniak natality had steadily declined since. As the city was industrialized and wider urbanization of the surrounding areas took place Serbs that typically inhabited surrounding rural areas were incorporated into the city's urban structure. On the other hand decline of Bosniak population occurred after 1918 when Bosnia and Herzegovina was included in the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (early Yugoslavia). Their sharp drop was partly due to Agrarian Reform of 1918 that ordered the land owned by Bosniak landowners to be given to Serbian families for symbolic reimbursment, which was never fully paid. The Agrarian Reform was introduced as means to dismantle old Bosnian feudal system but it was also abused to change the ethnic makeup of the region. The actual numbers of Bosniaks were further obscured since their nationality was not recognized in 1918 and they had to declare themselves either as Serbs, Croats or undecideds until 1961. Given these economic and cultural advantages Serb population of Banja Luka has been steadily increasing: 1931: 30.53% - 1948: 34.78% - 1991: 54.60% During WWII most noble Banjaluka's Sephardic Jew families were deported to nearby concentration camps Jasenovac and Stara Gradiska. Today, Banjaluka's jewish community is virtually non-existent. A spike in Serb immigration was mostly noted after the earthquake of 1969 when the city has seen a boom in housing construction. Also there was a steady movement of military personnel from Serbia and Montenegro as a consequence of communist politics of centralization of military that contributed to some 25,000 new Serb citizens to the city of Banja Luka.

In 1991 the city of Banja Luka was still an ethnically mixed city while on the municipal level there was an evident Bosnian Serb dominance of 54.6%

Note: The population for 1969 and onwards represents the population of the entire Banja Luka Metropolitan area.

Government

Banja Luka plays an important role on different levels of Bosnia and Herzegovina's government structures. Banja Luka is the center of government for the Municipality of Banja Luka and, in 2003, officially became the capital of Republika Srpska.

Economy

Although the city itself was not directly affected by the war in the early 1990s, Banja Luka's economy was. For four years, Banja Luka fell behind the world in key areas such as technology, resulting in a rather stagnant economy today.

A mere 80% or so of Banja Lukan citizens are employed. (disputed)

In 1990, the Banja Luka region had an export worth 400 million US$. Although the economy today is a far cry from what it used to be, many of the industries are the same. Among the chief industries in Banja Luka are, metal working, wood processing, leather, textiles, rubber processing, the tobacco industry, and food processing.

Culture

Due to its long history, Banja Luka has a rich culture. A number of museums can be found in the city, including the Museum of Republika Srpska aka Museum of Bosanska Krajina, and the Ethnographic Museum, established in 1930. Banja Luka also has a national theatre, and library, both dating from the first half of the 20th century. There are numerous other museums and theatres in the city including the Museum of Modern Art of Republika Srpska.

One of the most famous cultural sites in Banja Luka is the cultural centre "Banski Dvor" (Halls of the Ban), built in the 1930s as a spot of residence for the Bans of Vrbaš banovina. The well preserved fortress Kastel is found in the center of the city. In the city there are many Cultural Artistic Associations.The oldest is RKUD"Pelagic" (1927) and it is the oldest institution of this kind in BiH.

Tourism

Banja Luka has a number of hotels, the oldest one dating back to 1885. The city and surrounding area have a number of popular tourist attractions. Among the most famous are the pools, thermal springs, and spas in the region. The area is popular among natural lovers, while the city center is attractive to tourists due to its historical structures and many restaurants.

Miscellaneous

Banja Luka has one major football (soccer) stadium and several indoor sports halls. The local handball and soccer teams bear the traditional name Borac (fighter), though the basketball club was recently renamed to Banjalučka pivara, after the Banja Luka brewery.


The city was once nicknamed the "Green City", due to its trees (over 10,000 in number) and parks. Also it has an International Airport.

External link

Template:Bosnian citiesbg:Баня Лука bs:Banja Luka da:Banjaluka de:Banja Luka es:Banja Luka fr:Banja Luka nl:Banja Luka sr:Бања Лука sv:Banja Luka-->

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