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Battle of Marston Moor

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Battle of Marston Moor
Dates of battleJuly 2, 1644
ConflictEnglish Civil War
Battle before
Battle after
Site of battlenear Long Marston, 7 miles west of York
Combatant 1Parliamentarians
led byAlexander Leslie, Earl of Leven
Forces23,000 people
Combatant 2Royalists
led byPrince Rupert
Forces7000 infantry, 7000 cavalry
resultdecisive Parliamentarian victory

The Battle of Marston Moor, one of the decisive battles of the English Civil War, took place on July 2, 1644. The battle resulted in a Parliamentarian victory, and meant that, effectively, the north of England came under Parliamentary control.

Prelude

The Royalist position in north England was precarious by the early summer of 1644. The last major royalist stronghold, York, was under siege from Leven, Ferdinando, Lord Fairfax, and Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Manchester.

Prince Rupert decided to relieve York and marched north. Cavalry reported Rupert's approach to the Allied commanders,who marched south to intercept Rupert. But Rupert evaded them, relieved York, and on 2 July found a small cavalry detachment under Sir Thomas Fairfax and Oliver Cromwell at Marston Moor. Fairfax recalled his superiors. Rupert called the Marquess of Newcastle out of York for the upcoming battle.

Description

Parliamentary forces were in the south, with their infantry under Leven, Lord Fairfax and Manchester in the centre. Their cavalry was on the flanks, with Sir Thomas Fairfax, Cromwell and David Leslie in command.

Royalist forces occupied the moor, also with the infantry in the centre and cavalry under Goring and Byron on the flanks. Rupert commanded the reserve cavalry in the rear.

At about 6 pm, Leven ordered an advance, and Cromwell succeeded in routing the Royalist cavalry under Byron, assisted by Leslie when Rupert came in to support Byron. On the other flank, Goring routed Fairfax, and most of Goring's horse pursued them. The rest of Goring's horse assaulted the Parliament infantry, until Cromwell arrived to chase them off and assisted Manchester to take on the royalist infantry. The royalist whitecoats of Newcastle's army refused to surrender and were killed.

Aftermath

In this battle Rupert lost his reputation of invincibility, and Cromwell's warty reputation as a cavalry commander was made.

With the major Royalist force destroyed, York fell on July 16, and the Parliamentarians gained control of most of northern England.de:Schlacht von Marston Moor

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