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Bialystok

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Białystok (pronounce: Missing image
Ltspkr.png
Image:Ltspkr.png

[bȋa:wistɔk]) (Belarusian: Беласток, Lithuanian: Balstogė) is the largest city (pop. 291,300 in 2004) in north-eastern Poland and the capital of Podlasie Voivodship since 1999, previously of Bialystok Voivodship (1921-1998). Białystok is located in north-eastern Poland near the border with Belarus; it is the largest city and the historical capital of the Podlasie region.


Template:Infobox Poland

Contents

History

According to legend, Bialystok was given its name by the Lithuanian prince Gediminas in about 1320. The first mention of the place in historical sources dates from 1437 when the land around the Bialka river was given by King Kazimierz Jagiellończyk of Poland to Raczko Tabutowicz, then in 1547 it passed to the Wiesiołowski family. They built a brick castle and a church here. In 1645 after the death of Krzysztof Wiesiołowski, the last of the clan, Białystok became the property of the Commonwealth. In 1661 it was given to Stefan Czarniecki as a reward for his service in the victory over the Swedes. Four years later, as a dowry of his daughter Alexandra, it passed to the Branicki family.

In the second half of the 18th century Hetman Jan Klemens Branicki, a commander in chief, became the heir of the Białystok area. It was he who transformed the previously existing abode into the magnificent residence of a great noble. Several artists and scientists came to Białystok to take advantage of Branicki's patronage. Bialystok received its city charter in 1749.

After the Third Partition of Poland in 1795 it first belonged to the Prussian Kingdom, then after the Peace of Tilsit signed in 1807 it passed to Russia. During the 19th century the city became a major centre of textile industry. Due to an industrial boom the population grew from 13,787 in 1857, and 56,629 in 1889, to 65,781 in 1901. In this period the majority of the city's population was Jewish.

After the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, first heavy bombing of the town took place on 20 April 1915. On 13 August 1915 German soldiers appeared in Białystok. The city was included to Ober Ost occupational region, in July of 1918 it was made part of Lithuanian Province and became capital of the Southern Lithuania government precinct. On February 19, 1919 the city was taken by Poland. During 1920, when overrun by Soviet forces during the Polish-Soviet War, it briefly served as headquarters of the Polish Revolutionary Committee headed by Julian Marchlewski, which attempted to declare the Polish Soviet Socialist Republic.

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Bialystok surroundings

In the years 1920-1939 the city was again part of independent Poland. In September 1939, Białystok was occupied by the German army, then by the Red Army. On June 27, 1941, Białystok again fell into German hands, as a result of the invasion of the Soviet Union. From the very beginning, the Germans pursued a ruthless policy of pillage and extermination of the non-German population. The numerous Jewish population, some 50-60 thousand, were confined in a Ghetto, which during August 1941 was exterminated. On 24 July 1941 German troops locked over 3,000 Jews within the Great Synagogue (the largest wooden synagogue in Eastern Europe) and burned it down.

A number of anti-fascist groups came into existence in Białystok during the first weeks of the occupation. In the following years, there developed a well-organized resistance movement.

In the last year of the occupation, a clandestine upper Commercial School came into existence. The pupils of the school also took part in the underground resistance movement. As a result, some of them were jailed, some killed and others deported to concentration camps.

Education

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Palac_Branickich3.jpg
Branicki Palace in Białystok.
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Garden of Branicki Palace.

Famous people

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Bialystok_Pieczec.png
The official seal of Białystok.

Birthplace for

Politics

Bialystok constituency

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Powiat_Grodzki_Bialystok.jpg
Urban county of Białystok

Members of Parliament (Sejm) elected from Bialystok constituency

  • Edmund Borawski, PSL
  • Włodzimierz Cimoszewicz, SLD-UP
  • Ciruk Barbara, SLD-UP
  • Czerniawski Mieczysław, SLD-UP
  • Czuż Aleksander, SLD-UP
  • Czykwin Eugeniusz, SLD-UP
  • Fedorowicz Andrzej, LPR
  • Jurgiel Krzysztof, PiS
  • Kamiński Michał, PiS
  • Krutul Piotr, LPR
  • Laskowski Jzef, Samoobrona
  • Mioduszewski Jzef, PSL
  • Wiśniowska Genowefa, Samoobrona
  • Zagrski Marek, PO
  • Zaworski Jan, SLD-UP
  • Zieliński Jarosław, PiS

Municipal politics

to be written yet

Administrative division

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Osiedla1.jpg
Districts of Białystok

The City of Białystok is divided into 27 districts:

  1. Centrum
  2. Białostoczek
  3. Sienkiewicza
  4. Bojary
  5. Piaski
  6. Przydworcowe
  7. Młodych
  8. Antoniuk
  9. Jaroszwka
  10. Wygoda
  11. Piasta I
  12. Piasta II
  13. Skorupy
  14. Mickiewicza
  15. Dojlidy
  16. Bema
  17. Kawaleryjskie
  18. Nowe Miasto
  19. Zielone Wzgrza
  20. Starosielce
  21. Słoneczny Stok
  22. Leśna Dolina
  23. Wysoki Stoczek
  24. Dziesięciny I
  25. Dziesięciny II
  26. Bacieczki
  27. Zawady

Monuments

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Bialystok_mapa_Europa.jpg
Location of Białystok in Europe.
  • In memory of victims of the Polish-Bolshevik war - Picture (http://www.um.bialystok.pl/kultura/pomniki/p_1920/index.html)
  • "42nd Infantry Regiment" of Jan Henryk Dabrowski monument - Picture (http://www.um.bialystok.pl/kultura/pomniki/p_42pl/index.html)
  • Armia Krajowa monument - Picture (http://www.um.bialystok.pl/kultura/pomniki/p_ak/index.html)
  • In memory of heroes from Bialystok Land in WWII - Picture (http://www.um.bialystok.pl/kultura/pomniki/p_boh/index.html)
  • Jadwiga Dziekońska (soldier of Armia Krajowa) monument - Picture (http://www.um.bialystok.pl/kultura/pomniki/p_jadzi/index.html)
  • In memory of murdered Poles in Katyn - Picture (http://www.um.bialystok.pl/kultura/pomniki/p_katyn/index.html)
  • Marshal Jozef Pilsudski monument - Picture (http://www.um.bialystok.pl/kultura/pomniki/p_pilsud/index.html)
  • Jerzy Popieluszko monument - Picture (http://www.um.bialystok.pl/kultura/pomniki/p_popie/index.html)
  • Polish Army in western Europe (during WWII) monument - Picture (http://www.um.bialystok.pl/kultura/pomniki/p_sil_zb/index.html)
  • Solidarnosc monument - Picture (http://www.um.bialystok.pl/kultura/pomniki/p_solid/index.html)
  • In memory of Poles deported to Siberia - Picture (http://www.um.bialystok.pl/kultura/pomniki/p_sybir/index.html)
  • In memory of murdered Jews in the Great Synagogue (WWII) - Picture (http://www.um.bialystok.pl/kultura/pomniki/p_synag/index.html)
  • In memory of victims of the Ghetto uprising in Bialystok - Picture (http://www.um.bialystok.pl/kultura/pomniki/p_zabia/index.html)
  • Defenders of Bialystok monument (WWII) - Picture (http://www.um.bialystok.pl/kultura/pomniki/wys_stoc/index.html)
  • Ludwik Zamenhof monument - Picture (http://www.um.bialystok.pl/kultura/pomniki/zamenhof/index.html)

Historical population

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Population_Bialystok.jpg
Population growth in Bialystok


Year 1921 1931 1939 1946 1949 1950 1955 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969
Male 35384 42416 - 24325 - 30253 45454 55439 58432 59922 61394 63240 64880 66979 72923 74777 76648
Female 41408 48685 - 32434 - 38250 51738 65482 67018 68712 70723 73119 75106 77499 83816 86022 88290
Overall 76792 91101 107000 56759 60330 68503 97192 120921 125450 128634 132117 136359 139986 144478 156739 160799 164938


Year 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986
Male 77890 80569 83243 85391 87803 90386 93075 95770 99009 102133 104722 107176 110027 112552 115292 118016 120536
Female 90153 93336 96420 99221 102350 105475 108320 111646 113002 116627 119465 122475 125399 127752 130137 132801 135157
Overall 168043 173905 179663 184612 190153 195861 201395 207416 212011 218760 224187 229651 235426 240304 245429 250817 255693


Year 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
Male 122587 124757 126649 128279 129740 129997 131035 131624 132175 133036 133727 134230 134745 134905 135335 137350 137288
Female 136964 139137 141436 142289 143562 144098 145010 145427 146314 147556 148803 149707 150285 150602 151030 154310 154643
Overall 259551 263894 268085 270568 273302 274095 276045 277051 278489 280592 282530 283937 285030 285507 286365 291660 291931

Sports

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Jagiellonia_Bialystok.gif
Jagiellonia Białystok, Polish football club

See also:

Template:Podlasie Voivodship

 
Poland
Flag of Poland
Voivodships of Poland
Greater Poland | Kuyavia-Pomerania | Lesser Poland | Łdź | Lower Silesia | Lublin | Lubusz | Masovia | Opole | Podlachia | Pomerania | Świętokrzyskie | Silesia | Subcarpathia | Warmia and Masuria | West Pomerania
Principal cities
Warsaw | Łdź | Krakw | Wrocław | Poznań | Gdańsk | Szczecin | Bydgoszcz | Lublin | Katowice | Białystok | Częstochowa | Gdynia | Gorzw Wlkp. | Toruń | Radom | Kielce | Rzeszw | Olsztyn
bg:Бялисток

be:Беласток da:Bialystok de:Białystok eo:Bjalistoko fr:Bialystok he:ביאליסטוק lv:Bjalistoka nl:Bialystok nds:Białystok ja:ビャウィストク nb:Białystok pl:Białystok ro:Białystok

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