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Boleslaus III of Poland

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Boleslaus III on a painting by Jan Matejko

Boleslaus III the Wrymouth (Bolesław III Krzywousty), (1086-1138) was duke of Poland from 1102. He was a son of Ladislaus Herman of Poland and Judith of Bohemia, daughter of emperor Henry III. Boleslaus III was thus the brother in law of emperor Henry IV.

He defeated the Pomeranians at the battle of Naklo in 1109, and took control of Pomerania between 1119 and 1123, once again by conquest regaining temporary Polish access to the Baltic Sea. The government of the local Pomeranians was left in place. He also defeated Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor in 1109, in the Battle of Hundsfeld. However in 1135 he became a vassal of Henry's son Lothair II, Holy Roman Emperor, from whom he received the lien of Pomerania, Poland and Ruegen.

Boleslaus also campaigned in Hungary from 1132 to 1135, but to little effect.

First he married Zbyslava of Kiev, daughter of Sviatopolk II of Kiev grand duke of Kiev. They had one son:

Second he married Salome von Berg-Schelklingen, with whom he had 14 children (6 sons + 8 daughters) from whom we know of 4 sons and 5 daughters:

Before his death in 1138 he announced the testament (Boleslaw the Wrymouth's testament) dividing his land between four of his sons. The "senioral principle" established in the testament stated, that at every time the oldest member of the dynasty was to have a supreme power over the rest and also control an indivisible "senioral part" - a vast stripe of land running N-S through the middle of Poland, with Krakow as the main city. Senior's prerogatives included also control over Pomerania, which was a fief of the Empire. The principle was quickly broken, which began an almost 200 years period of feudal dissolution in Poland. Template:Poland-stub Template:Kings and Dukes of Poland

External links

fr:Boleslas III le Bouche-Torse he:בולסלאב השלישי עקום הפה pl:Bolesław III Krzywousty sv:Boleslav III av Polen zh:波列斯瓦夫三世

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