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Brigantes

From Academic Kids

The Brigantes were a British Celtic tribe which lived between Tyne and Humber. They were probably a confederation of smaller tribal groups, including the Carvetii and Parisii. Their name comes from the Celtic goddess Brigantia.

During the Roman invasion of AD 43 the Brigantes were arguably the most powerful Celtic tribe in Britain, dominating the north of the country. In the beginning, led by their queen Cartimandua and her husband Venutius, they were on friendly terms with the Romans, acting as a "client-kingdom", a nominally independent ally beholden to Roman power. In about 51 the British resistance leader Caratacus was defeated by Publius Ostorius Scapula in Wales, and fled north to the Brigantes. Cartimandua proved her loyalty by handing Caratacus over to the Romans.

This was followed by a split with Venutius, who became the most prominent figure in the resistance to Rome. Cartimandua had apparently tired of him and married his armour-bearer, Vellocatus, who she elevated to the kingship in Venutius's place. Initially Venutius only sought to overthrow his ex-wife, only later turning his attention to her Roman protectors. The Romans defended their client queen, and Venutius's revolt was defeated by Caesius Nasica during the governorship of Aulus Didius Gallus (52 - 57).

Taking advantage of Roman instability during the year of four emperors, Venutius revolted again in 69. Cartimandua appealed for troops from the Romans, who were only able to send auxiliaries. Cartimandua was evacuated and Venutius took the kingdom.

It is likely that Venutius was defeated, and the Brigantes conquered, during the governorship of Quintus Petillius Cerialis (71 - 74). Certainly Gnaeus Julius Agricola (governor 78 - 84) was able to march through Brigantian territory without difficulty on the way to his Scottish conquests.

The Brigantes are also attested in south-eastern Ireland.

External links

no:Brigantene sv:Briganter

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