Canadian federal election, 1945

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Cdn1945.PNG
The Canadian parliament after the 1945 election

The Canadian federal election of 1945 was the 20th general election in Canadian history. It was held June 11, 1945 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. William Lyon Mackenzie King's Liberal government was re-elected to its third consecutive majority government.

The federal election was the first since the victory of the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation in the Saskatchewan provincial election, and many predicted a major breakthrough for the CCF nationally. The party was expected to win 70 to 100 seats, possibly even enough to form a minority government. Despite the expectations, the party only won 28 seats.

1945 was also the first test of the newly named Progressive Conservatives. The Conservative Party had changed its name in 1942 when former Progressive Party Premier of Manitoba John Bracken became its leader. The party improved its standing over the old Conservative Party, but fell far short of challenging Liberal hegemony.

A key issue in this election seems to have been electing a stable government. The Liberals urged voters to "Return the Mackenzie King Government", and argued that only the Liberal Party had a "preponderence of members in all nine provinces". Mackenzie King threatened to call a new election if he was not given a majority: "We would have confusion to deal with at a time when the world will be in a very disturbed situation. The war in Europe is over, but unrest in the east is not over."

The Progressive Conservatives tried to capitalize on the massive mid-campaign victory by the Ontario Progressive Conservative Party in the 1945 Ontario provincial election. PC campaign ads exhorted voters to rally behind their party: "Ontario shows! Only Bracken can win!", and suggesting that it would be impossible to form a majority government in the country without a plurality of seats in Ontario, which only the Tories could win. In the event, the Liberals fell just short of a majority even though they won only 34 seasts in Ontario to the PCs' 48 seats. Eight "Independent Liberal" MPs could be expected to support the government.

Social welfare programs were also an issue in the campaign. Another Liberal slogan encouraged voters to "Build a New Social Order" by endorsing the Liberal platform, which included

  • $750 million to provide land, jobs and business support for veterans;
  • $400 million of public spending to build housing;
  • $250 million for family allowances;
  • establishing an Industrial development Bank;
  • loans to farmers, floor prices for agricultural products;
  • tax reductions.

Campaigning under the slogan, "Work, Security, and Freedom for All -- with the CCF", the CCF promised to retain war-time taxes on high incomes and excess profits in order to fund social servcies, and to abolish the Canadian Senate. The CCF fought hard to prevent the support of labour from going to the Labour Progressive Party (i.e., the Communist Party of Canada).

The LPP, for its part, pointed out that the CCF's refusal to enter into an electoral pact with the LPP had cost the CCF 100,000 votes in the Ontario election, and had given victory to the Onatrio PCs. It urged voters to "Make Labor (sic) a Partner in Government."

The Social Credit Party of Canada tried, with modest success, to capitalize on the positive image of the Alberta Socred government of William Aberhart, asking voters, "Good Government in Alberta -- Why Not at Ottawa?". Referring to social credit monetary theories, the party encouraged voters to "Vote for the National Dividend".

National results

Party Party Leader # of
candidates
Seats Popular Vote
1940 Elected % Change # % % Change

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Liberal/row

Liberal 236 177 117 -33.9% 2,086,545 39.78% -11.54%

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Progressive Conservatives/row

Progressive Conservative1 John Bracken 203 39 65 +66.7% 1,448,744 27.62% -2.79%

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/CCF/row

Cooperative Commonwealth M.J. Coldwell 205 8 28 +250% 815,720 15.55% +7.31%

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Social Credit/row

Social Credit2 Solon Low 93 10 13 +30.0% 212,220 4.05% +1.46%

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Independents/row

Independent Liberal 20 2 8 +300% 93,791 1.79% -1.40%

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Independents/row

Independent 64 1 6 +500% 256,381 4.89% +3.65%

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/BQ/row

Bloc Populaire Canadien Maxime Raymond 35 * 2 * 172,765 3.29% *

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Communist/row

Labour Progressive3 Tim Buck 68 - 1   111,892 2.13% +1.94%

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Independents/row

Independent PC 8 * 1 * 14,541 0.28% *

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Independents/row

Independent CCF4 2 * 1 * 6,402 0.12% *

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Liberal-Progressive/row

Liberal-Progressive   1 3 1 -66.7% 6,147 0.12% -0.48%

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Progressive Conservatives/row

National Government5   1   -   4,872 0.09%  

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Trades Union   1 * - * 4,679 0.09% *

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Independents/row

Farmer-Labour   2 - - - 3,620 0.07% -0.11%

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Independent Conservative 1 - - -100% 2,653 0.05% -0.18%

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Independents/row

Democratic W.R.N. Smith 5 * - * 2,603 0.05% *

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Social Credit/row

Union of Electors   1 * - * 596 0.01% *

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Independents/row

Socialist Labour   2 * - * 459 0.01% *

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Labour/row

Labour   1 - - - 423 0.01% -0.07%

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Liberal-Labour   1 * - * 345 0.01% *

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Independents/row

Independent Labour 1 * - * 241 x *

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Independents/row

Unknown 1 - - - 70 x x
Total 952 243 243 - 5,245,709 100%  
Sources: http://www.elections.ca -- History of Federal Ridings since 1867 (http://www.parl.gc.ca/information/about/process/house/hfer/hfer.asp?Language=E)

Notes:

* The party did not nominate candidates in the previous election.

x - less than 0.005% of the popular vote

1 1945 Progressive Conservative vote compared to 1940 National Government + Conservative vote.

2 1945 Social Credit vote compared to 1940 New Democracy + Social Credit vote.

3 1945 Labour Progressive vote compared to 1940 Communist vote.

4 The successful "Independent CCF" candidate ran as a People's Cooperative Commonwealth Federation candidate.

5 One Progressive Conservative candidate ran under the "National Government" label that the party had used in the 1940 election.

Results by province

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Progressive Conservatives/row
Party Name BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PE YK Total

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Liberal/row

Liberal Seats: 5 2 2 9 34 47 7 9 3   118

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Liberal/row

Popular Vote: 27.5 21.8 33.0 32.7 40.8 46.5 50.0 45.7 48.4   39.8

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Progressive Conservatives/row

Progressive Conservative Seats: 5 2 1 2 48 1 3 2 1 1 66

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Progressive Conservatives/row

Vote: 30.0 18.7 18.8 24.9 41.4 9.7 38.3 36.8 47.4 40.0 27.6

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/CCF/row

Cooperative Commonwealth Seats: 4 - 18 5 - - - 1 - - 28

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/CCF/row

Vote: 29.4 18.4 44.4 31.6 14.3 2.4 7.4 16.7 4.2 27.5 15.6

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Social Credit/row

Social Credit Seats: - 13 - - - -         13

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Social Credit/row

Vote: 2.3 36.6 3.0 3.2 0.2 4.4         4.0

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Independents/row

Independent Liberal Seats: 1         7 -       8

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Independents/row

Vote: 1.7         5.9 1.1       1.8

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Independents/row

Independent Seats:       - - 6 - -     6

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Independents/row

Vote:       0.8 0.4 16.9 3.2 0.2     4.9

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/BQ/row

Bloc populaire Seats:         - 2         2

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/BQ/row

Vote:         0.3 11.9         3.3

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Communist/row

Labour Progressive Seats: - - - - - 1   -   - 1

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Communist/row

Vote: 5.9 4.5 0.8 5.0 2.0 1.0   0.6   32.4 2.1

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Independents/row

Independent PC Seats:         - 1         1

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Independents/row

Vote:         xx 1.0         0.3

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Independents/row

Independent CCF Seats: 1         -         1

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Independents/row

Vote: 1.4         xx         0.1

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Liberal-Progressive/row

Liberal-Progressive Seats:       1             1

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Liberal-Progressive/row

Vote:       1.9             0.1
Total Seats 16 17 21 17 82 65 10 12 4 1 245
Parties that won no seats:
National Government Vote:         0.3           0.1

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Independents/row

Trades Union Vote: 1.1                   0.1

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Independents/row

Farmer-Labour Vote:         0.2           0.1

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Independents/row

Independent Conservative Vote:           0.2         0.1

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Independents/row

Democratic Vote: 0.6                   xx

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Social Credit/row

Union of Electors Vote:           xx         xx

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Independents/row

Socialist Labour Vote: 0.1                   xx

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Labour/row

Labour Vote:           xx         xx

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Independents/row

Liberal-Labour Vote:           xx         xx

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Independents/row

Independent Labour Vote:         0.1           xx

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Independents/row

Unknown Vote:           xx         xx

xx - less than 0.05% of the popular vote

Template:Sequence
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