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Canadian federal election, 1993

From Academic Kids

Template:Election canada

The Canadian federal election of 1993 was held on October 25th, 1993 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. It was one of the most eventful in Canadian history. While Canada's traditional ruling party, the Liberal Party, was returned to power, the equally old Progressive Conservative Party was all but annihilated. The election also saw the rise of two new parties: the Bloc Québécois, which became the Official Opposition, and the Reform Party, which also won many seats.

The election was called by Progressive Conservative leader Kim Campbell, who had been Prime Minister for only a few months. She had replaced Brian Mulroney, who was considered one of the most unpopular Prime Ministers in Canadian history because of his failed constitutional reforms and the poor state of the Canadian economy. While she was expected to lose the election, she was forced to call one as the Tories' five-year mandate had almost expired.

Missing image
Can1993.PNG
Popular vote map with bar graphs showing seat totals in the provinces and territories

From the start of the campaign, it seemed that Jean Chrétien's Liberals would likely form the next government. The Liberals ran a successful campaign, based around the Red Book platform.

More uncertain was how the opposition parties would be divided. Two new parties were fighting in this election. The West produced the Reform Party, a right-wing populist party led by Preston Manning. In Quebec, the Bloc Québécois, a Quebec separatist party, rose to the fore under the leadership of ex-Tory cabinet minister Lucien Bouchard. Both parties did very well in the election. Reform swept Alberta, won much of British Columbia, and many seats in Saskatchewan and Manitoba. The Bloc dominated Quebec, winning enough seats to form the Official Opposition as the second-largest party in Parliament.

Two older parties did not fare so well. The governing Tories were devastated. A poorly-run campaign only exacerbated their problems. Most memorable was an advertisement that attacked Chrétien's paralysed face, which offended many Canadians as a perceived cheap shot against a person's physical disability. The Tories were reduced to two seats, their worst showing ever. Kim Campbell, who lost her own Vancouver riding, resigned as leader of the party after the fiasco. Although the party won the third largest number of votes, only barely behind the Reform Party and far higher than the Bloc Québécois, their vote was spread out over a wide area, resulting in victories in only two ridings: New Brunswick's Elsie Wayne and Quebec's Jean Charest were elected as the only PC Members of Parliament.

The other national party, the New Democratic Party, also did poorly, falling to nine seats, losing ground in the West to Reform and in Ontario to the Liberals.

Former Progressive Conservative MP Gilles Bernier was re-elected as an independent candidate in Beauce riding in Quebec.

Another new party, the National Party, founded by Mel Hurtig, failed to make a significant impression and disbanded after the election.

Missing image
Elec1993.PNG
The shape of the House of Commons after the 1993 election

Fourteen registered political parties contested the election, a Canadian record.

The Liberals won all but one riding in Ontario, and significant support in the Maritimes and on the Prairies. They also won a fair number of seats in Quebec and British Columbia. This gave them a substantial majority in parliament.

Contents

National results

For a complete list of MPs elected in the 1993 election see 35th Canadian parliament.

Party Party Leader # of
candidates
Seats Popular Vote
1988 Dissolution Elected % Change # % Change

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Liberal/row

Liberal Jean Chrétien 295 83 79 177 +113.3% 5,647,952 41.24% +9.32%

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/BQ/row

Bloc Québécois Lucien Bouchard 75 * 8 54 * 1,846,024 13.52% *

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Reform/row

Reform Preston Manning 207 - 1 52   2,559,245 18.69% +16.59%

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/NDP/row

New Democratic Audrey McLaughlin 294 43 43 9 -79.1% 939,575 6.88% -13.50%

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Progressive Conservatives/row

Progressive Conservative Kim Campbell 295 169 151 2 -98.8% 2,186,422 16.04% -26.97%

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/National/row

National Mel Hurtig 170 * - - * 187,251 1.38% *

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Natural Law/row

Natural Law Neil Paterson 231 * - - * 84,743 0.63% *

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Green/row

Green Chris Lea 79 - - - - 32,690 0.24% -0.12%

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Christian Heritage/row

Christian Heritage Heather Stilwell 59 - - - - 30,455 0.22% -0.55%

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Libertarian/row

Libertarian Hilliard Cox 52 - - - - 14,630 0.11% -0.14%

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Abolitionist/row

Abolitionist John C. Turmel 80 * - - * 9,141 0.07% *

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Canada Party/row

Canada Party Joseph Thauberger 56 * - - * 7,506 0.06% *

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/PCC/row

Commonwealth Gilles Gervais 59 - - - - 7,316 0.06% -

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Marxist-Leninist/row

Marxist-Leninist Hardial Bains 51 - - - - 5,136 0.04% +0.04%

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Independents/row

Independent 129 - 3 1   60,434 0.73% +0.56%

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Independents/row

No affiliation 23 - - - - 48,959 0.09% -0.10%
     Vacant 4  
Total 2,155 295 295 295 - 13,667,671 100%  
Sources: http://www.elections.ca History of Federal Ridings since 1867 (http://www.parl.gc.ca/information/about/process/house/hfer/hfer.asp?Language=E)

Notes:

"% change" refers to change from previous election

  • Party did not nominate candidates in the previous election.

Results by province

Party Name BC AB SK MB ON QC NB NS PE NL NT YK Total

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Liberal/row

Liberal Seats: 6 4 5 12 98 19 9 11 4 7 2 - 177

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Liberal/row

Popular Vote: 28.1 25.1 32.1 45.0 52.9 33.0 56.0 52.0 60.1 67.3 73.0 23.2 41.3

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/BQ/row

Bloc Québécois Seats:           54             54

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/BQ/row

Vote:           49.3             13.5

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Reform/row

Reform Seats: 24 22 4 1 1   - - - - - - 52

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Reform/row

Vote: 36.4 52.3 27.2 22.4 20.1   8.5 13.3 1.0 1.0 6.1 13.1 18.7

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/NDP/row

New Democratic Seats: 2 - 5 1 - - - - - - - 1 9

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/NDP/row

Vote: 15.5 4.1 26.6 16.7 6.0 1.5 4.9 6.8 5.2 3.5 6.0 43.4 6.9

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Progressive Conservatives/row

Progressive Conservative Seats: - - - - - 1 1 - - - - - 2

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Progressive Conservatives/row

Vote: 13.5 14.6 11.3 11.9 17.6 13.5 27.9 23.5 32.0 26.7 12.7 17.7 16.0

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Independents/row

Other Seats: - - - - - 1 - -         1

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Independents/row

Vote: 0.3 0.4 1.0 0.1 0.8 1.1 1.3 2.1         0.8
Total seats 32 26 14 14 99 75 10 11 4 7 2 1 295
Parties that won no seats:

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/National/row

National Vote: 4.1 2.4 1.0 3.1 1.2 0.1 0.3 1.1 0.5 0.5   2.1 1.4

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Natural Law/row

Natural Law Vote: 0.6 0.6 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.8 0.5 0.9 0.2 0.8 0.9   0.6

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Green/row

Green Vote: 0.7 0.3     0.3 0.1   0.1 0.3   1.4   0.2

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Christian Heritage/row

Christian Heritage Vote: 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3   0.3 0.3 0.7 0.2   0.4 0.2

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Libertarian/row

Libertarian Vote: 0.3       0.2 0.1             0.1

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Abolitionist/row

Abolitionist Vote:         0.1 0.2             0.1

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Canada Party/row

Canada Party Vote: 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.3     0.3           0.1

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/PCC/row

Commonwealth Vote:           0.2             0.1

Template:Canadian politics/party colours/Marxist-Leninist/row

Marxist-Leninist Vote:         0.1               0.0

Source: Elections Canada (http://www.elections.ca/)

Notes

  • 1993 was one of only two elections in Canadian history (the other was 1997) where the official Opposition did not have the majority of the opposition's seats. 54 seats for the Bloc Quebecois, compared to 64 seats for the other opposition parties and independents combined.

10 closest ridings

1. Edmonton Northwest, AB: Anne McLellan (Lib) def. Richard Kayler (Ref) by 12 votes
2. Bourassa, QC: Osvaldo Nunez (BQ) def. Denis Coderre (Lib) by 67 votes
3. Edmonton North, AB: John Loney (Lib) def. Ron Mix (Ref) by 83 votes
4. Simcoe Centre, ON: Ed Harper (Ref) def. Janice Laking (Lib) by 123 votes
5. Edmonton East, AB: Judy Bethel (Lib) def. Linda Robertson (Ref) by 203 votes
6. Winnipeg Transcona, MB: Bill Blaikie (NDP) def. Art Miki (Lib) by 219 votes
7. Moose Jaw—Lake Centre, SK: Allan Kerpan (Ref) def. Rod Laporte (NDP) by 310 votes
8. Edmonton—Strathcona, AB: Hugh Hanrahan (Ref) def. Chris Peirce (Lib) by 418 votes
9. La Prairie, QC: Richard Bélisle (BQ) def. Jacques Saada (Lib) by 476 votes
10. Souris—Moose Mountain, SK: Bernie Collins (Lib) def. Doug Heimlick (Ref) by 499 votes
10. Verdun—Saint-Paul, QC: Raymonde Lavigne (Lib) def. Kim Beadoin (BQ) by 499 votes


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