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Chatham Islands

From Academic Kids

The Chatham Islands from space. Chatham Island is the largest, Pitt Island is the second largest, and South East Island is the small island to the right of Pitt.
The Chatham Islands from space. Chatham Island is the largest, Pitt Island is the second largest, and South East Island is the small island to the right of Pitt.

The archipelago of the Chatham Islands, Rekohu in the Moriori language, consists of about 10 islands within a 40-kilometre radius.


Contents

Geography

The archipelago lies at 44o south and 176o west, roughly 800 km to the east of Christchurch, New Zealand. The islands have officially belonged to New Zealand since 1842. They cover a total of 966 km2, almost all of which is in the two main islands, Chatham and Pitt. The two main islands are the only inhabited islands, with the smaller islands mostly conservation reserves with access restricted or prohibited.

Names of the main islands are (in English and Moriori):

  • Chatham Island/Rekohu (and Wharekauri in Maori)
  • Pitt Island/Rangiauria
  • Little Mangere Island
  • Star Keys/Motuhope
  • Forty-Fours/Motuhara
  • Mangere Island
  • South East Island/Rangatira
  • The Sisters/Rangitatahi

Most of the land is fern or pasture covered, although there are some areas of forest. If you have a chance, take a look at the macrocarpa trees, which are affected by the wind. If you could imagine someone standing upright with long hair, trailing almost horizontally in the lee of the wind. The islands are hilly – Pitt more so than Chatham – with the highest point being a 290-metre summit on Pitt Island. The main island of the chain is dotted with numerous lakes and lagoons, notably the large Te Whanga Lagoon. Other lakes on Chatham include Huro and Rangitahi. The main island has streams including Te Awainanga and Tuku.

The international date line lies to the east of the Chathams, even though the islands lie east of 180 degrees of longitude. Consequently, the Chatham Islands observe their own time, nominally 45 minutes ahead of New Zealand time, including daylight savings. (New Zealand time orients itself to 180 degrees longitude.)

History

The first human habitation of the Chathams involved migrating Polynesian tribes who settled the islands about 1000 AD, and in their isolation became the Moriori people. The exact origins of these people remains a matter of some dispute. Some have thought they arrived directly from more northerly Polynesian islands, but the now more current theory sees them as Maori from mainland New Zealand. The debate has political overtones as modern Maori inhabitants, descendants of those who invaded and conquered the archipelago in 1832, claim access to ancestral Maori fishing rights. An extensive report on these claims, "Rekohu", has been published by the Waitangi Tribunal.

The Moriori population of the islands numbered about 2000. They lived as hunter-gatherers, taking food from the sea and from native flora. The society lived peacefully, resolving disputes through consensus rather than warfare and keeping its population stable by castrating a certain percentage of the male children.

The name "Chatham Islands" comes from the ship HMS Chatham, whose captain William R. Broughton landed on November 29, 1791, and claimed possession for Great Britain. Sealers and whalers soon made the islands a centre of their activities. Fishing activities continue to contribute significantly to the economy, although the sealing and whaling industries ceased activities about 1861.

The invading Maori from New Zealand – as well as European whalers – all but wiped out the indigenous Moriori population. Today, however, some island families continue a Moriori lineage, and the Moriori culture continues to recover. Moriori have recently established a national marae and united under the Hokotehi Trust.

Population

Chatham and Pitt islands are inhabited. The population of 717 (Census 2001 (http://www.stats.govt.nz/domino/external/web/CommProfiles.nsf/FindInfobyArea/597000-au)) individuals has European (70%), Maori and Moriori origins. The town of Waitangi is the main settlement with some 200 residents. Other villages are at Te One (pronounced as Te-own-ne) and Kaingaroa (pronounced as Kai-n-ga-raw) (where the two primary schools are located) and the fishing villages of Owenga and Port Hutt.

Waitangi facilities include a hospital with resident doctor, trading bank, several stores, and engineering and marine services. The main shipping wharf is located here.

Transportation

Visitors to the Chathams usually arrive by air from Christchurch, Auckland and Wellington (around 1.5 - 2 hours from Christchurch on a Convair 580). While freight generally arrives by ship (4 - 5 days sailing time), the sea journey takes too long for many passengers, and is not always available. For many years a Bristol Freighter served the islands, a slow and noisy freight aircraft converted for carrying passengers by installing a passenger container equipped with airline seats and a toilet, in part of the cargo hold. The air service primarily served to ship out high-value export crayfish products.

The grass landing-field at Hapupu, at the northern end of the Island, proved a limiting factor, as few aircraft apart from the Bristol Freighter had both the range to fly to the islands and the ruggedness to land on the grass airstrip. Although other aircraft did use the landing field occasionally, they would often require repairs to fix damage resulting from the rough landing. In 1991, after many years of requests by locals and the imminent demise of the aging Bristol Freighter aircraft, the construction of a sealed runway at Karewa allowed more modern aircraft to land safely. The Chathams' own airline, Air Chathams, now operates services to Auckland on Thurdays, Wellington on Mondays, Wednesdays & Fridays and Christchurch on Tuesdays. The timetable varies seasonally, but generally planes depart at Chathams around 10.30am (Chathams Time) and arrive in the mainland around noon. Then it refuels and reloads, depart again at around 1pm, back to the Chathams. It operates twin turboprop Convair 580 aircraft in combi (freight and passenger) configurations and Fairchild Metroliners.

Reef Shipping operates shipping services from Auckland and Napier, and Black Robin Freighters operates shipping services from Timaru and Napier.

Visitors to the islands should pre-arrange their accommodation before arrival with The Ultimate Hideaway, Chatham Lodge, Waitangi Hotel, Chathams Motel, or local homestays. The islands have rental vehicles, but no taxis or public transport.

Driving in Chathams is great fun. Make sure you have a map (buy a good size one from the mainland before you leave for Chathams), as it is easy to get lost if you missed a signpost. Take extra care when driving at night, as there are animals on the road (cows and sheep) and oncoming vehicles with or without lights!

Government

In Parliament, the Chatham Islands form part of the Rongotai general electorate, which mostly lies in Wellington. Annette King serves as the Member for Rongotai. The Te Tai Tonga Maori seat (held as of 2004 by Mahara Okeroa) also includes the Chatham Islands. The term of all current Parliamentarians expires after the next General Election, no later than September 2005.

Local government on the islands, uniquely within New Zealand, involves a council established by its own Act of Parliament (Chatham Islands Council Act 1995). The Chatham Islands Council operates as a district council with regional council functions, making it in effect a unitary authority but with not quite as many responsibilities as the others.

Because of the isolation and small population, some of the rules governing daily activities undergo a certain relaxation on some of New Zealand's smaller islands. For example, every transport service operated solely on Great Barrier Island, the Chatham Islands, or Stewart Island need not comply with section 70C of the Transport Act 1962 (the requirements for drivers to maintain driving-hours logbooks). Drivers subject to section 70B must nevertheless keep record of their driving hours in some form. See New Zealand Gazette 14 August 2003.

The partially-elected Hawke's Bay District Health Board provides the Islands with health services.

Policing comes courtesy of a sole-charge constable appointed by the Wellington police district, who at various times has often doubled as an official for many government departments, including court registrar (Department for Courts), customs officer (New Zealand Customs Service) and immigration officer (Department of Labour -- New Zealand Immigration Service).

A District Court judge sent from the North Island or from the South Island presides over court sittings, but urgent sittings may take place at the Wellington District Court.

Funny fact: Although it is 800km east of the mainland, you do not need a passport to go to Chathams. However, photo ID will be required at the check in desk on the mainland.

External links



Template:Territorial Authorities of New Zealandda:Chatham Řerne de:Chatham-Inseln es:Islas Chatham

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