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Co-evolution

From Academic Kids

 and the  they  co-evolve so that the flower is dependent on the bee and the bee is dependent on the flower for survival
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Bumblebees and the flowers they pollinate co-evolve so that the flower is dependent on the bee and the bee is dependent on the flower for survival

In Biology, Co-evolution is the mutual evolutionary influence between two species that become dependent on each other. Each party in a co-evolutionary relationship exerts selective pressures on the other, thereby affecting each others' evolution. Coevolution is an extreme example of mutualism.

Examples include pollination of orchids by hummingbirds. These species co-evolve because the birds are dependent on the flowers for nectar and the flowers are dependent on the birds to spread their pollen so they can reproduce. The evolutionary process has led to long-billed birds and deep flowers.

Co-evolution also occurs between predator and prey species (see Red Queen).

Co-evolution is also used to refer to evolutionary interactions between and even within molecules in the field of molecular evolution (for example, between hormones and receptors). This usage has existed at least since the term "molecular coevolution" was coined by G. Dover in 1984.

Co-evolution is one of the techniques used for generating artificial life. Bodies (bars and actuators) are evolved together with neurons in a simulated environment.

In his book The Self-organizing Universe, Erich Jantsch attributed the entire evolution of the cosmos to co-evolution.

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Bibliography

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