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Dental consonant

From Academic Kids

Places of articulation
Labial
Bilabial
Labiodental
Linguolabial
Labial-velar
Coronal
Interdental
Dental
Retroflex
Alveolar
Postalveolar
Alveolo-palatal
Dorsal
Palatal
Labial-palatal
Velar
Uvular
Pharyngeal
Epiglottal
Glottal
Apical
Laminal
This page contains phonetic information in IPA, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]
[Edit] (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Template:Place_of_articulation?action=edit)

Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. (The latter articulation is called alveolar.)

True dental consonants are relatively uncommon. French, Italian, and Spanish t, d, n, and l are often called dental. However, they are actually alveolar; the difference between the Romance languages and English is not where the tongue contacts the roof of the mouth, but which part of the tongue makes contact. In English it is the tip of the tongue (such sounds are termed apical), whereas in the Romance languages it is the flat of the tongue just above the tip (such sounds are called laminal).

The confusion with dental articulation comes from looking at the tongue from outside the mouth: With laminal alveolar consonants, the tip of the tongue can be seen touching the teeth. However, it is the rear-most point of contact that is relevant, for this is what defines the acoustic space of the mouth and gives a consonant its characteristic sound. In the case of the Romance languages, the rear-most contact is alveolar. This difference is important. If an English speaker trying to speak French simply moves the tongue forward to make the contact dental, while maintaining an apical articulation, any surrounding front rounded vowels will be very difficult to pronounce. If, however, the speaker tucks the tip of the tongue out of the way (such as behind the lower teeth), and makes contact at the same place as in English, the consonants will sound better, and the vowels will be much easier to pronounce. Thus a good phonetic description of a language will specify whether coronal consonants are laminal or apical as well as whether they are dental or alveolar.

The dental consonants as transcribed by the International Phonetic Alphabet are:

IPA Description Example
Language Orthography IPA Meaning
image:IPA-dental_nasal.png dental nasal Spanish onda d̪a] wave
Missing image
IPA-voiceless_dental_plosive.png
image:IPA-voiceless_dental_plosive.png

voiceless dental plosive Spanish toro [oɾo] bull
Missing image
IPA-voiced_dental_plosive.png
image:IPA-voiced_dental_plosive.png

voiced dental plosive Spanish donde [ɔn̪e] where
Missing image
Xsampa-T2.png
image:Xsampa-T2.png

voiceless dental fricative English thing [θiŋ] thing
image:Xsampa-D2.png voiced dental fricative English this [ðɪs] this
Missing image
IPA-voiced_dental_approximant.png
image:IPA-voiced_dental_approximant.png

voiced dental approximant Spanish codo [koð̞o] elbow
image:IPA-dental_lateral_approximant.png dental lateral approximant Kaititj inp [inp] armpit
image:IPA-dental_flap.png dental flap
image:IPA-dental_trill.png dental trill Marshallese Ebadon [e.bɑ.on̪] Ebadon
image:IPA-dental ejective.png dental ejective
image:IPA-voiced_dental_implosive.png voiced dental implosive
image:Xsampa-barslash.png dental click Xhosa ukkǀola [ukukǀola] to grind fine

See also

de:Dental fr:Consonne dentale ja:歯音 ko:치음 sv:Dental zh:齿音

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