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Economy of Ecuador

From Academic Kids

The economy of Ecuador is based on petroleum production and exports of bananas, shrimp, and other primary agricultural products. In 2002, oil accounted for about one-third of public sector revenue and 40% of export earnings. Ecuador is the world's largest exporter of bananas ($936.5 million in 2002) and a major exporter of shrimp ($251 million in 2002). Exports of nontraditional products such as flowers ($291 million in 2002) and canned fish ($333 million in 2002) have grown in recent years. Industry is largely oriented to servicing the domestic market.

Deteriorating economic performance in 1997-98 culminated in a severe economic and financial crisis in 1999. The crisis was precipitated by a number of external shocks, including the El Nino weather phenomenon in 1997, a sharp drop in global oil prices in 1997-98, and international emerging market instability in 1997-98. These factors highlighted the Government of Ecuador's unsustainable economic policy mix of large fiscal deficits and expansionary money policy and resulted in an 7.3% contraction of GDP, annual year-on-year inflation of 52.2%, and a 65% devaluation of the national currency in 1999.

On January 9, 2000, the administration of President Jamil Mahuad announced its intention to adopt the U.S. dollar as the official currency of Ecuador to address the ongoing economic crisis. Subsequent protest led to the removal of Mahuad from office and the elevation of Vice President Gustavo Noboa to the presidency.

The Noboa government confirmed its commitment to dollarize as the centerpiece of its economic recovery strategy, successfully completing the transition from sucres to dollars in 2001. Following the completion of a one-year stand-by program with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in December 2001, Ecuador successfully negotiated a new $205 million stand-by agreement with the IMF in March 2003.

Buoyed by higher oil prices, the Ecuadorian economy experienced a modest recovery in 2000-01, with GDP rising 2.3% in 2000 and 5.4% in 2001. GDP growth leveled off to 3.3% in 2002. Although final figures are not yet available, it is expected to fall further, to about 1.7%, for 2003. But GDP growth is estimated to recover to over 4% in 2004, due largely to expanded oil exports. Inflation fell from an annual rate of 96.1% in 2000 to an annual rate of 22.4% in 2001; although final figures are not yet available, it is expected to drop below 7% for 2003. Despite recent gains, 70% of the population lives below the poverty line, more than double the rate of 5 years ago.

The completion of the second Transandean Oil Pipeline (OCP in Spanish) in 2003 will enable Ecuador to expand oil exports. The OCP will double Ecuador’s oil transport capacity, but Ecuador will need to attract additional foreign investment to realize the full economic potential of the added capacity.

Ecuador and the IMF

Journalist Greg Palast, of the British Observer, alleges that the International Monetary Fund is attempting an economic coup against the Ecuadoran government. He cites documents which he claims show the IMF is working to force the nation to grant British Petroleum rights to build and own an petroleum pipeline over the Andes.

See also Unidad de Valor Constante

GDP: purchasing power parity - $54.5 billion (1999 est.)

GDP - real growth rate: -8% (1999 est.)

GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,300 (1999 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:
agriculture: 14%
industry: 36%
services: 50% (1999 est.)

Population below poverty line: 50% (1999 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.3%


highest 10%: 37.6% (1994)

Inflation rate (consumer prices): 59.9% (1999 est.)

Labor force: 4.2 million

Labor force - by occupation: agriculture 30%, industry 25%, services 45% (1999 est.)

Unemployment rate: 12% with widespread underemployment (November 1998 est.)

Budget:
revenues: planned $5.1 billion (not including revenue from potential privatizations)
expenditures: $5.1 billion including capital expenditures of $NA (1999)

Industries: petroleum, food processing, textiles, metal work, paper products, wood products, chemicals, plastics, fishing, lumber

Industrial production growth rate: 2.4% (1997 est.)

Electricity - production: 9,657 GWh (1998)

Electricity - production by source:
fossil fuel: 27.96%
hydro: 72.04%


nuclear: 0%
other: 0% (1998)

Electricity - consumption: 8,981 GWh (1998)

Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (1998)

Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (1998)

Agriculture - products: bananas, coffee, cocoa, rice, potatoes, manioc (tapioca), plantains, sugarcane; cattle, sheep, pigs, beef, pork, dairy products; balsa wood; fish, shrimp

Exports: $4.1 billion (f.o.b., 1999)

Exports - commodities: petroleum, bananas, shrimp, coffee, cocoa, cut flowers, fish

Exports - partners: United States 39%, Colombia 7%, Italy 6%, Peru 5%, Chile 3% (1998)

Imports: $2.8 billion (c.i.f., 1999)

Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, raw materials, fuels; consumer goods

Imports - partners: United States 39%, Colombia 11%, Japan 9%, Venezuela 5%, Mexico 3% (1998)

Debt - external: $15.3 billion (1999)

Economic aid - recipient: $695.7 million (1995)

Currency: US Dollar ($) (previous currency: 1 sucre (S/) = 100 centavos)

Exchange rates: No longer applicable. (Previously: sucres (S/) per US$1 - 24,860.7 (January 2000), 11,786.8 (1999), 5,446.6 (1998), 3,988.3 (1997), 3,189.5 (1996), 2,564.5 (1995))

Fiscal year: calendar year

See also

Template:SACN Template:WTOfr:économie de l'Équateur pt:Economia do Equador ru:Category:Эквадор

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