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Henry IV of France

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Template:House of Bourbon(France)

Henry IV (French: Henri IV) (December 13, 1553May 14, 1610), called the Great (French: le Grand), was the first of the Bourbon kings of France, reigning from 1589 until 1610. As a Protestant he was involved in the Wars of Religion before acceding to the throne; to become King of France he converted to Catholicism and signed the Edict of Nantes, granting religious liberties to the Protestants and effectively ending the civil war. One of the most popular French kings (both during and after his reign), showing great care for the welfare of his subjects, as well as displaying an unusual religious tolerance for the time, he was murdered by a disturbed man, Ravaillac. In France Henry IV was (and still is) informally nicknamed le bon roi Henri ("good king Henry").

Contents

Genealogy

Henry IV was the son of Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendome and Jeanne d'Albret, Queen of Navarre. He was born in Pau, Pyrnes-Atlantiques, in the southwest of France. At the death of King Henry III of France, who had no son, the crown passed to Henry IV, in application of the Salic Law, as he was the descendant of the eldest surviving male line of the Capetian Dynasty. The new king, however, had to fight for some years to be recognized as the legitimate king of France by the Catholics most opposed to his Protestant upbringing.

Here is a short genealogy that explains how Henry IV descends in male line from the Capetian Dynasty:

It should be noted that in reality, the line of Bourbon-Busset, descending from Peter I, Duke of Bourbon (1310 1356), was actually the eldest surviving male line of the Capetian Dynasty, whereas the line of Bourbon-Vendme, to whom Henry IV belonged, only descended from Jacques de Bourbon-La Marche (1315 1362), the younger brother of Peter I of Bourbon. Thus, at the death of Henry III the crown should have passed to Csar de Bourbon-Busset (1565 1630), 7th cousin once removed of Henry IV. However, the great-great-grandfather of Csar de Bourbon-Busset, called Louis de Bourbon (1438 1482), Bishop of Lige, and 4th cousin of Franois de Bourbon-Vendme (1470 1495), had married without the approval of his cousin King Louis XI, before becoming bishop. The king had thus annulled his marriage, and declared his children illegitimate. It still remains a matter of debate whether the customs of the kingdom actually gave Louis XI the right to exclude from royal succession the children of Louis de Bourbon. What is certain is that the Bourbon-Busset never claimed the crown, and Csar de Bourbon-Busset played no particular role when his cousin Henry IV became king.

The eldest male descendant of the Bourbon-Busset was the French writer Jacques de Bourbon Busset (1912 2001), member of the French Academy. President Charles de Gaulle was once quoted telling him: "Had it not been for the decision of King Louis XI, you may well be head of state of France today, instead of me."

Life

On 18 August 1572 Henry married Marguerite de Valois, sister of the then King Charles IX. In the same year he became King Henry III of Navarre, succeeding his mother Jeanne d'Albret, who had brought him up as a Huguenot. Jeanne herself was also a Protestant and had declared Calvinism the religion of Navarre. Henry's marriage was part of a plan to help quell the French Wars of Religion. As part of this plan, he was forced to convert to Roman Catholicism on 5 February 1576, and kept in confinement, but later that year he gained his freedom and resumed Protestantism.

He became the legal heir to the French throne upon the death in 1584 of Franois, Duke of Alenon, brother and heir to the Catholic King Henri III, who had succeeded Charles IX in 1574.

Since Henry of Navarre was a descendant of King Louis IX, King Henry III had no choice but to recognize him as the legitimate successor. Salic law disinherited the king's sisters and all others who could claim descent by the distaff line. In December 1588 King Henry III had the Duke of Guise murdered, along with the Duke's brother, Louis Cardinal de Guise. Henry III had to flee Paris and joined forces with Henry of Navarre, but was assassinated shortly thereafter.

On the death of the king in 1589, Henry of Navarre became nominally the king of France. But the Catholic League, strengthened by support from outside, especially from Spain, was strong enough to force him to the south and he had to set about winning his kingdom by military conquest. The League proclaimed Henry's Catholic uncle, the Cardinal de Bourbon, King as Charles X, but the Cardinal himself was Henry's prisoner. Henry was victorious at Ivry and Arques, but failed to take Paris.

After the death of the old Cardinal in 1590, the League could not agree on a new candidate. While some supported various Guise candidates, the strongest candidate was probably Infanta Isabella, the daughter of Philip II of Spain, whose mother Elisabeth had been the eldest daughter of Henry II of France. The prominence of her candidacy hurt the League, which thus became suspect as agents of the foreign Spanish, but nevertheless Henry remained unable to take control of Paris.

With the encouragement of the great love of his life, Gabrielle d'Estre, on 25 July 1593 Henry declared that Paris vaut bien une messe ("Paris is worth a Mass") and permanently renounced Protestantism. His entrance into the Roman Catholic Church secured for him the allegiance of the vast majority of his subjects and he was crowned King of France at the Cathedral of Chartres on 27 February 1594. In 1598, however, he declared the Edict of Nantes, which gave circumscribed toleration to the Huguenots.

Henry's first marriage was not a happy one and the couple remained childless. The two had separated even before Henry had succeeded to the throne in August, 1589 and Marguerite de Valois lived for many years in the chateau of Usson in Auvergne. After Henry had become king various advisers impressed upon him the desirability of providing an heir to the French Crown in order to avoid the problem of a disputed succession. Henry himself favored the idea of obtaining an annulment of his first marriage and taking Gabrielle d'Estre as a bride, who had already borne him three children. Henry's councillors strongly opposed this idea, but the matter was resolved unexpectedly by Gabrielle d'Estre's sudden death in April 1599, after she had given birth prematurely to a stillborn son. His marriage was annulled in 1599 and he then married Marie de Mdicis in 1600.

Henry IV proved to be a man of vision and courage. Instead of waging costly wars to suppress opposing nobles, Henry simply paid them off. As king, he adopted policies and undertook projects to improve the lives of all subjects that would make him one of the country's most popular rulers ever. His supposed statement Si Dieu me prte vie, je ferai quil ny aura point de laboureur en mon royaume qui nait les moyens davoir le dimanche une poule dans son pot ("If God allows me to live, I will see that there is not a single labourer in my kingdom who does not have a chicken in his pot every Sunday") epitomizes the peace and relative prosperity he brought to France after the decades of religious war.

During his reign, Henry IV worked through his right-hand man, the faithful Maximilien de Bethune, duc de Sully (1560-1641), to regularize state finance, promote agriculture, drain swamps to create productive crop lands, undertake many public works, and encourage education, as with the creation of the College Royal Louis-Le-Grand in La Flche (today Prytane Militaire de la Flche). He and Sully protected forests from further devastation, built a new system of tree-lined highways, and constructed new bridges and canals. He had a 1200m canal built in the park at the Royal Chateau at Fontainebleau (which can be fished today), and ordered the planting of pines, elms and fruit trees.

The king renewed Paris as a great city with the Pont Neuf, which still stands today, constructed over the River Seine to connect the Right and Left Banks of the city. Henry IV also had the Place Royale built (since 1800 known as Place des Vosges) and added the Grande Galrie to the Louvre. More than 400 meters long and thirty-five meters wide, this huge addition was built along the bank of the Seine River and at the time was the longest edifice of its kind in the world. King Henry IV, a promoter of the arts by all classes of peoples, invited hundreds of artists and craftsmen to live and work on the building’s lower floors. This tradition continued for another two hundred years until Emperor Napoleon I banned it. The art and architecture of his reign has since become known as the Henry IV style.

King Henry's vision extended beyond France and he financed the expeditions of Samuel de Champlain to North America that saw France lay claim to Canada.

Although he was a man of kindness, compassion, and good humor, and much loved by his people, King Henry IV was assassinated on 14 May 1610 in Paris, by a fanatic called Franois Ravaillac, and was buried at Saint Denis Basilica. His widow, Marie de Mdicis, served as Regent to their 9-year-old son, Louis XIII, until 1617.

While the rest of France marks the end of monarchist rule each year on Bastille Day, in Henry's birthplace of Pau, his reign as king of France is celebrated.

Marriages

On August 18 1572 he married, firstly, Marguerite de Valois, annulled in 1599, with no children.

On December 17 1600, he married, secondly, Marie de Mdicis with six children:

Children


Additionally, Henry IV had at least 11 illegitimate children, 3 of them with Gabrielle d'Estre.

See - http://genealogy.euweb.cz/capet/capet40.html

External link

  • Biography (http://www.hfac.uh.edu/gbrown/philosophers/leibniz/BritannicaPages/Henri-IV/Henri-IV.html)


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