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Informbiro

From Academic Kids

Informbiro (also the Informbiro period or the Time of the Informbiro) was a period 1948-1955 in the history of Yugoslavia characterized by conflict and schism with the Soviet Union. The word Informbiro is a Yugoslavian abbreviation for "Information Bureau," from "Communist Information Bureau" (also: "Cominform").

The term refers to the Cominform Resolution of June 28, 1948 that accused the Communist Party of Yugoslavia (CPY), among other things, of "depart[ing] from Marxism-Leninism," exhibiting an "anti-Soviet attitude," "meeting criticism with hostility" and "reject[ing] to discuss the situation at an Informbureau meeting." Following these allegations, the resolution expelled the CPY from Cominform. As a result, Yugoslavia fell outside of the Soviet Empire and the country's brand of Communism, with its independence from the Soviet line, was called Titoism by Moscow and considered treasonous. Party purges against suspected "Titoites" were conducted throughout Eastern Europe.

Significant evidence supports the opinion that the actual reason for the resolution was the unwillingness of Josip Broz Tito to obey the instructions of Joseph Stalin. The most serious disputes concerned policy in the Balkans. In particular, Yugoslavia was considered to be pushing too fast towards unification with Bulgaria and Albania; although following Stalin's proposal for a series of such unifications, Tito was seen to be proceeding without proper consultation with Moscow. Another issue was Tito's eagerness to "export revolution" to Greece.

The Cominform Resolution is seen as a failed attempt by Stalin to command obedience not only from Tito, but from other national Communist parties as well.

Contrasting his brutal repression of other satellites' independent moves (e.g. Hungary), it remains unclear what prevented Stalin from miltary intervention. In his memoirs, Nikita Khrushchev asserted that he was "absolutely sure that if the Soviet Union bordered Yugoslavia Stalin would have intervened militarily."

Khrushchev reconciled with Tito in 1955.

This period was also marked by dissent within the CPY and subsequent repression and deportations of political opponents to concentration camps and prisons, notably Goli Otok island.

This period figures prominently in Yugoslavian literature and cinema.

Contents

Informbiro timeline

  • February 1948 - Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov threatens Tito that "serious differences of opinion about relations between our countries" will result if Tito does not clear his actions with Moscow.
  • March 27, 1948 - the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) sends a letter of warning to the Central Committee of the CPY.
  • April 12 - 13, 1948 - A CC CPY plenum discusses the CPSU letter.
  • May 4, 1948 - The CC CPSU sends a new letter to the CC CPY with additional allegations.
  • May 9, 1948 - At a meeting in Belgrade the CC CPY issues its reply to the CKVKP(b) letter.
  • May 20, 1948 - The CC CPY issues a statement that the CPY will not send a delegation to the next Cominform meeting.
  • June 28, 1948 - Cominform circulates the "Resolution on the situation in the CPY."
  • October 25, 1948 - The USSR expels the Yugoslavian ambassador. Other pro-Soviet governments follow suit.
  • November 29, 1948 - From the scheduled meeting in Budapest, Cominform issues a new resolution that states in part that "the transformation of Yugoslavia from the phase of bourgeois nationalism into fascism and direct betrayal of national interests is complete."
  • September, 1948 - The USSR unilaterally annuls its treaty with Yugoslavia. Hungary, Poland, Bulgaria, Romania and Czechoslovakia follow suit.
  • 1949 - Goli Otok prison camp is established for the internment of "supporters of the Informbiro."
  • June 6, 1953 - Under Khrushchev, the USSR suggests the exchange of ambassadors with Yugoslavia. Hungary, Bulgaria and Albania follow suit.
  • 1954 - Poland and Czechoslovakia also restore relations with Yugoslavia.
  • June 2, 1955 - Yugoslavia and the USSR sign a joint declaration in Belgrade.
  • 1995 - Goli Otok internees from post-Yugoslav republics seek damages.

Informbiro in cinema

References

  • Leonid Gibianskii, "The Soviet-Yugoslav Split and the Cominform" in: The Establishment of Communist Regimes in Eastern Europe, 1944-1949; Norman Naimark & Leonid Gibianskii (eds.) (Boulder, CO, 1998)
  • Leonid Gibianskii, The Idea of Balkan Unification and Plans for its Implementation during the 40s of the 20th Century (in Russian); Voprosy Istorii, (2001 nos. 11-12), pp. 38-56.

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