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Isoelectronic

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When an atom, radical, ion or molecule has an equal number of electrons or has the same number of electrons when compared to the atoms of another element, the two species are called "isoelectronic".

Basically, if two atoms/ions have the same number of electrons they are isoelectronic to each other, unless there are electrons present.

When ions are formed through the loss of electrons, the atom that is to become the ion loses electrons from its highest energy level (its valence shell) first. For example, the configuration for Ga is [Ar]4s23d104p1, but the configuration for Ga+3 is [Ar]3d10. The electrons are lost from the 4p and the 4s subshells first, then from the 3d.

Examples:

When Na+=[He]2s22p6 it is isoelectronic to Ne=[He]2s22p6
When Cl-=[Ne]3s23p6 it is isoelectronic to Ar=[Ne]3s23p6
  • Gallium+3 is not isoelectronic to Nickel, even though both have 28 electrons
When Ga+3 [Ar]3d10 is not isoelectronic to [Ar]4s23d8
Both carbon atoms have configuration [He]2s22p2=6e, what makes together with additional 2 electrons of hydrogen atoms 14 electrons
Boron has configuration [He]2s22p1=5e, as Nitrogen [He]2s22p3=7e, what makes with hydrogen atoms also 14 valence electrons

Further Information:

See atom, iso, isoelectricity, electronic, electron and electronic configuration.

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