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Kiel

From Academic Kids

This article is about the city in Germany. There is also Kiel, Wisconsin in the United States of America.

Template:Kiel infobox Kiel [kiːl] is a city in northern Germany and the capital of the Bundesland Schleswig-Holstein. It has a population of 233,795, (113,274 males, 120,521 females).

Located on the Baltic Sea (Bay of Kiel) at the head of the Kieler Frde (Kiel fjord), the city has been one the country's main naval bases since the 1860s. Kiel is a center for German shipbuilders and the eastern terminus of the Kiel Canal. An important university is located in Kiel.

Kiel was largely destroyed in the Second World War. It was rebuilt after the war, but the city-planners failed to revive the former townscape; Kiel was (unfortunately) less meticulously restored than other towns in Schleswig-Holstein like Lbeck or Schleswig.

Sights in Kiel include:

In the vicinity of Kiel are beautiful seaside resorts such as Mltenort and Laboe. Laboe has an impressive Marine Memorial, as well as the WWII-era submarine U-995, a popular tourist site since 1972.

Kiel is famous for sailing events. The "Kieler Woche," a week-long series of sailing regattas with a cultural framework, has been held annually each summer since 1882 (with the exceptions of 1915-1919 and 1940-1946). In 1936 and 1972, when the Olympic Games were held in Berlin and Munich respectively, the Olympic yachting competitions were held in Kiel.

Contents

History

Kiel was originally founded in 1233 as tom Kyle by Count Adolf IV of Schauenburg, and granted town rights (Lübisches Stadtrecht) in 1242 by Adolf's eldest son, Johann I. Kiel was a member of the Hanseatic League from 1284 until it was evicted in 1518. In 1431, the Kieler Umschlag was first held, which became the central market for goods and money in Schleswig-Holstein until it began to lose significance from 1850 on, being held for the last time in 1900. Kiel's university, the Christian-Albrechts-Universität, was founded on September 29 1665 by Christian Albrecht, duke of Gottorf.

From 1773 to 1864, the town belonged to the King of Denmark (as Schleswig and Holstein were in a personal union with Denmark – although not, as sometimes mistakenly stated, adjoined to Denmark: As a part of Holstein Kiel belonged to the Holy Roman Empire).

During the Second War of Schleswig in 1864, Kiel and the rest of Schleswig and Holstein were conquered by an alliance of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia. After the war Kiel was briefly administered by both the Austrians and the Prussians, but the Austro-Prussian War in 1866 led to the annexation of Kiel by Prussia in 1867. On 24 March, 1865 the Prussian king William I based Prussia's Baltic Sea fleet out of Kiel instead of Danzig (Gdańsk). When King William I of Prussia became Kaiser William I of the German Empire in 1871, he designated Kiel and Wilhelmshaven as Reichskrieghafen, or "Imperial War Harbours."

Because of its new role as Germany's main naval base, Kiel quickly increased in size in the following years, from 18,770 in 1864 to about 200,000 in 1910. Much of the old town center and other surroundings were leveled and redeveloped to provide for the growing city. Kiel was the site of the sailors' mutiny which sparked the German Revolution in late 1918.

Because of its status as a naval port, Kiel was heavily bombed by the Allies during World War II; it is estimated that 80% of the remaining old town, 72% of the residential areas, and 83% of the industrial areas were destroyed.

Missing image
Kiel_Landtag_Plenarsaal.JPG
Schleswig-Holstein Parliament, November 2004

In 1946, Kiel was named the seat of government for Schleswig-Holstein, and it officially became the state's capital in 1972. The Kieler Umschlag has been held again yearly since 1975. It is now a festival with music and food stalls, historical costumes, special bread, and a wedding, the Umschlagshochzeit, for which every young bride and groom can apply. But most of all, Kiel is famous for its sailing festival, the Kieler Woche (every year in June).

Important personalities

Buildings and Constructions

Famous residents

Important historic mayors and lord mayors of Kiel

Lord mayors after World War II

Twin towns

Economy

External links

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de:Kiel eo:Kijlo fr:Kiel he:קיל it:Kiel nds:Kiel (Stadt) nl:Kiel (Duitsland) no:Kiel pl:Kilonia pt:Kiel sv:Kiel ja:キール (都市)

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