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Kigo

From Academic Kids

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Cherry trees from Japan around the Tidal Basin in Washington, DC.

Kigo (season word(s), from the Japanese 季語, kigo) are words or phrases that are generally associated with a particular season. They provide an economy of expression that is especially valuable in the very short Japanese poetry form known as haiku, as well as the longer linked-verse form known as renga, to indicate the season in which the poem or stanza is set.

Contents

History of kigo

Representation of and reference to the seasons has always been important in Japan culture and poetry. The first anthology of Japanese poetry, the mid-8th century Man'yōshū, had several sections devoted to the seasons. By the time of the first imperial Japanese anthology, the Kokinshū, a century and a half later (905 A.D.) the season sections had become a much larger part of that anthology. Both of these anthologies also had sections for other categories, such as love poems and miscellaneous (zō) poems.

The writing of the linked verses of renga started in the middle of Heian period (roughly 1000 AD) and developed through the medieval era. By the 13th century there were very set rules for the writing of renga, and the formal structure of renga specified that about half of the stanzas were supposed to include a reference to a specific season depending upon their place in the renga. These rules also said that the hokku (the opening stanza of the renga) should include a reference to the season in which the renga was being written. When these hokku started to be written as standalone verses not connected to a renga, they retained the requirement for a kigo. Originally called haikai, they were later renamed haiku.

Kigo and seasons

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A Jack-o'-lantern lit by a candle inside

Kigo are words or phrases that can be strongly associated with a particular season, or sometimes the association can be more subtle. Pumpkins (kabocha), for example, are a winter squash that is associated with the fall harvest. Furthermore, for people living in the United States, pumpkins are also associated with the Jack-o'-lanterns of Halloween. A little later in the year pumpkins are also associated with the pumpkin pies that are often part of the Thanksgiving Day dinner along with turkey and cranberries.

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The full moon as photographed by the Galileo spacecraft.

But why is the moon (tsuki) an autumn kigo since it is up in the sky all year long? Autumn is when the days are getting shorter and the nights are getting longer but are still warm enough to stay outside, so you are more likely to notice the moon. Often the night sky will be free of clouds so that also helps with noticing the moon. Autumn is also the time when the full moon can help farmers work under the moonlight to harvest their crops (see harvest moon). [For more on the moon as a kigo see below].

Japanese seasons

In the Japanese calendar, seasons traditionally followed the lunisolar calendar with the solstices and equinoxes at the middle of a season. Having the seasons centered on the solstices and equinoxes also used to be the European tradition with midsummer equivalent to the summer solstice (usually June 21st), and Midsummer Day (June 24th) as a quarter day in England, Wales, and Ireland. (The astronomical definition of seasons, however, has the seasons beginning at a solstice or equinox.) The traditional Japanese seasons are:

Cherry blossoms (), often simply called blossoms (hana) are a common spring kigo.
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Cherry blossoms (sakura), often simply called blossoms (hana) are a common spring kigo.
Spring: 4 February5 May
Summer: 6 May7 August
Autumn: 8 August6 November
Winter: 7 November3 February

For kigo, each season is then divided into early, mid-, and late periods. For Spring, these would be:

Early Spring: 4 February5 March (February)
Mid-Spring: 6 March4 April (March)
Late Spring: 5 April5 May (April)

Saijiki

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A sunflower, a typical sign of summer.
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the A-Bomb dome in Hiroshima, near to the ground zero but the construction survived.

Japanese haiku poets often use a book called a saijiki, which is like a dictionary or almanac for kigo. An entry in a saijiki usually includes a description of the kigo itself, plus a list of similar or related words, and then a few examples of haiku that include that kigo. The saijiki are divided into the four seasons (and modern saijiki usually include a section for the New Year and another section for Seasonless (Muki) words). Those sections are divided into a standard set of categories, and then the kigo are sorted within their proper category. The most common categories (with some examples of of both Japanese and international summer kigo) would be:

Summer

Notice that although haiku are often thought of as poems about nature, that two of the seven categories are primarily about human activities (Humanity and Observances).

Common kigo in Japanese haiku

Japan is long from north to south, so the seasonal features vary from place to place. The sense of season in kigo is however based on Kyoto and its vicinity, since the classical literature of Japan developed mainly in this area, especially up to the early part of the Edo period (the early 17th century). [For a larger list of both Japanese and International kigo, see the List of kigo article.]

[note: An asterisk (*) after the Japanese name for the kigo denotes an external link to a saijiki entry for the kigo with example haiku that is part of the "Japanese haiku: a topical dictionary (http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/japanese/haiku/saijiki/index.html)" website.]

Spring

  • Spring (haru) - the name of season is a kigo or season word. Other combinations are Spring begins (Haru tatsu), Signs of Spring (haru meku), Sea in the spring (haru no umi), Spring being gone (Iku haru). Higan of Spring (春彼岸, haru higan, literary beyond the border of this world), one week around Spring Equinox (shunbun) has a significant period for Buddhist to soothe their ancestors' souls and grave-visiting as well as Higan of Autumn.
  • February (kisaragi or nigatsu), March (yayoi or sangatsu) and April (uzuki or shigatsu). The third month (sangatsu) in the Japanese calendar is equivalent roughly to the April in the Gregorian calendar, therefore End of March (sangatsujin) is equal to End of Spring (haru no hate).
  • Warm (atatakashi or nurumu) - all spring - as the weather changes from the cold of Winter, any warming is noticed. Also Water becomes warm (mizu nurumu).
  • Spring mist or Spring haze (kasumi) - all spring - the daytime haze of Spring. The nighttime haze during Spring that can obscure the moon is called oboro. Haruichiban, the first warm wind of the Spring is used as kigo in the modern haiku.
Plum blossoms (), one of the many different flowers used as spring kigo
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Plum blossoms (ume), one of the many different flowers used as spring kigo
  • plum blossom (ume) - early spring
  • uguisu (鶯, Japanese Bush Warbler (sometimes translated as Japanese nightingale), Cettia diphone) - early spring - the bird is used as an example of sweet sounds. Uguisu were mentioned in the preface to the Kokinshū. It is often associated with plum blossoms and new growth in early Japanese waka and is regarded as a harbinger of spring (春告鳥, harutsugedori, literary "bird which announces the arrival of Spring"). Missing image
    Japanese_nightingale_note05.ogg
    listen to the voice

  • cherry blossoms (sakura) and cherry blossom-viewing (hanami) - late spring (April) - for the Japanese, cherry blossoms are such a common topic that in just mentioning blossoms (hana) in haiku it is assumed they are cherry blossoms. Blossom-viewing is an occasion for partying with friends or coworkers.
  • Hanamatsuri (Blossom Festival), Buddhist festival celebrating the birth of Buddha, on April 8.
  • frogs (kawazu) - all spring (February-April) - noted for their loud singing
  • skylarks (hibari) - all Spring - noted for their songs in flight, swallows (tsubame) mid-spring, twittering (saezuri) - all Spring - the chirping of songbirds
  • Hinamatsuri (Girl's Day) Doll Festival and Hina (doll) - a traditional Japanese festival for girls on March 3.
The   (semi) is a common late summer kigo.
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The cicada (semi) is a common late summer kigo.

Summer

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koinobori - ornament of Tango no sekku. Early summer.
  • Summer (natsu); other combinations are Summer has come (natsu kinu), End of summer (natsu no hate). Summer holidays (natsu yasumi) means mainly the school holiday.
  • May (satsuki or gogatsu), June (minazuki or rokugatsu, July (fumitsuki or hazuki)
  • hot (atsushi), hotness (atsusa) and hot day (atsuki hi); also, anything related to the heat, including sweat (ase) and in contemporary haiku, air conditioning (reibō)
  • wisteria (fuji), hana tachibana (wild orange blossoms) and iris (ayame) - early summer (May), water lily (hasu or hachisu) - mid and late summer.
  • Rainy season (tsuyu) - the Japanese rainy season, usually starting in mid-June.
  • hototogisu (Little Cuckoo - C. poliocephalis) - all summer (May-July) - the hototogisu is a bird in the Cuckoo family noted for its song
  • cicada (semi) - late summer (July) - known for their cries
  • Tango no sekku traditional festival for boys on May 5. See Hinamatsuri in Spring for the girls festival. Festival (matsuri) is applied to summer festivals of Shintoism for pulification. Traditionally it meant the fest of Kamo Shrine in Kyoto, however as kigo it can be applied to each local Shinto festival.

Autumn

 (budō) are a fruit typically harvested in Autumn
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Grapes (budō) are a fruit typically harvested in Autumn
  • Autumn (aki); other combinations are Autumn has come (aki kinu), Autumn is ending (aki hatsu), Autumn being gone (iku aki).
  • August (hazuki or hachigazu), September (nagatsuki or kugatsu) and October (jūgatsu or kannazuki). The ninth month (kugatsu) in the Japanese calendar is equivalent roughly to October in the Gregorian calendar, therefore End of September (kugatsujin) is equal to End of Autumn (aki no hate).
  • Typhoon (taifu or nowaki), thunder (kaminari)
  • Milky Way (amanogawa. lit. "river of heaven"), because in the autumn it is most visible in Japan. It is associated with Tanabata.
  • moon (tsuki) - all autumn (August-October), and moon-viewing (tsukimi) mid-autumn (September) - the word "moon" by itself is assumed to be a full moon in autumn. (Moon-viewing and leaf-viewing in autumn (along with snow-viewing (yukimi) in winter and cherry blossom-viewing in spring) are common group activities in Japan.)
  • Insects (mushi), mainly it implys singing one. Also crickets (kōrogi) - all autumn (August-October) - noted for the singing of the males
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Kakashi2.jpg
scarecrow in early autumn paddy field
  • Nashi pear (梨 nashi), quince (boke no mi), peach (momo), persimmon (kaki), apples (ringo) and grapes (budō) are examples of fruit that are used as autumn kigo.
  • colored leaves (momiji) - late autumn (October) - a very common topic for haiku along with related topics such as first colored leaves (hatsu momiji) mid-autumn, shining leaves (zōki momiji) late autumn, leaves turning color (usumomiji) mid-autumn, leaves start to fall (momoko katsu chiru) late autumn, etc. Leaf-viewing is a common group activity.
  • Scarecrow (kakashi), rice cropping (inekari) - rice harvest and relevant things are significant for Japanese life.
  • Autumn Festival (akimatsuri) - Autumn festival is mainly in the purpose of the thanksgiving for harvest. Other feasts in the Autumn, including Tanabata (the festival of the weaver maiden and the herdsman in the Heavenly Court), Grave-Visiting (haka mairi), and Bon Festival (Festival of the Hungry Ghosts) - all early autumn (August) - are kigo as well as associated ornaments and activites like small bonfires called mukae-bi with (welcome-fire) and folk dancing (odori) to Bon festival.

Winter

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Fallen leaves (ochiba), a symbol of winter.
  • Winter (fuyu), using "winter" in a haiku adds a sense of chilliness (literally and figuratively), bleakness, and seclusion to the poem.
  • November (shimotsuki or juichigatsu), December (shiwasu or junigatsu) and January (mutsuki or ichitagsu)
  • Cold (samushi) and Coldness (samusa).
  • fallen leaves (ochiba) and dry leaves (kareha) - all winter (November-January) - just as colored leaves are a clear sign of Autumn, fallen leaves are a sign of winter.
  • snow-viewing (yukimi) - late winter (January) - a popular group activity in Japan. Also first snow (hatsu yuki) mid winter, snow (yuki) late winter, and ice (kōri) late winter.
  • fugu soup (fugujiru), angler or sea-devil stew (ankō nabe), oyster (kaki) - seasonal dishes.
  • Christmas - this is a modern kigo. It wasn't used in the Edo period, when Christianity was forbidden.
  • Calendar vendor (koyomiuri) - preparation for the new year.
  • New Year's Eve (ōmisoka or toshi no yo, literary "The End of year"), and the New Year's Eve party (toshiwasure).
  • Kan (kan), days fron January 5 (or 6) till February 4 (or 5) (literary Coldness) - derived originally from the Chinese 24 seasonal periods. Also Daikan (Great Coldness) on January 5 or 6, or its another name Beginning of Kan season (kan no iri).


New Years

This group of kigo is a modern invention. Before Japan began using the Gregorian calendar (in 1873), the Japanese New Year was at the beginning of Spring.

  • Japanese New Year (正月 shōgatsu) * (http://hatbox.lib.virginia.edu/servlet/SaxonServlet?source=http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/japanese/haiku/HigHaik.xml&style=http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/japanese/haiku/long.xsl&clear-stylesheet-cache=yes&entryid=ganjitsu) As in many other cultures, the Japanese New Year is an important time of year for celebrations and there are many activities associated with it that may be mentioned in haiku, including some "firsts": first sun (hatsuhi), first laughter (waraizome), and first calligraphy (kakizome). There is also New Year's Day (ganjitsu).
  • first sparrow (hatsu-suzume) * (http://hatbox.lib.virginia.edu/servlet/SaxonServlet?source=http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/japanese/haiku/HigHaik.xml&style=http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/japanese/haiku/long.xsl&clear-stylesheet-cache=yes&entryid=hatsu-suzume) - the first sparrow helps welcome the new year.
  • New Year's Day customs: kadomatsu * (http://hatbox.lib.virginia.edu/servlet/SaxonServlet?source=http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/japanese/haiku/HigHaik.xml&style=http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/japanese/haiku/long.xsl&clear-stylesheet-cache=yes&entryid=kadomatsu) (a traditional decoration usually made of pine and bamboo that is place on the gate or outer doorway), otoshidama (the custom of giving pocket money to children), toso (a ritual mulled sak only drunk on New Years Day).
  • osechi (traditional Japanese New Year's Day food): zōni * (http://hatbox.lib.virginia.edu/servlet/SaxonServlet?source=http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/japanese/haiku/HigHaik.xml&style=http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/japanese/haiku/long.xsl&clear-stylesheet-cache=yes&entryid=zoniiwau) (a traditional vegetable broth with mochi—sticky rice cakes. The ingredients for zōni vary greatly between regions in Japan.), seven herbs (nanakusa) and rice porridge with seven herbs (nanakusa gayu), eaten in the evening of January 7.

Dispute on attribution

Switching from the old Japanese Calendar to the Gregorian Calendar raised numerous changing in life in Japan. Even traditional events have been afflicted by this change. Since kigo is affiliated by the seasonal events, several modern haiku poets have faced to reconsider the construction of kigo and its atribution to season. One of biggest change was creation of "New Year" part as a seasonal sectioning of kigo.

One typical example is the case of Tanabata. Traditonally the date of Tanabata is 7th day of the 7th month of Japanese calendar, therefore in August of the Gregorian one, today in many places it is celebrated on July 7, hence there is a dispute as to whether Tanabata is much fit to be treated as a Summer kigo, a feast celebrated on July 7, the end of summer.


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a rainforest in Thailand

Kigo outside of Japan

Although haiku started as a Japanese poetry form, it is now written around the world in many different languages. William J. Higginson's "Haiku World" (1996), which is the first international saijiki, has more than 1,000 poems, with over 600 poets from 50 countries writing in 25 different languages. The writing of haiku around the world has only increased with the advent of the internet, where you can even find examples of haiku written in Latin, Esperanto, and Klingon, as well as numerous examples in more common languages.

These international haiku poets have had to adapt the idea of kigo to their local conditions and culture. Many phenomena that might be used as kigo are similar around the world, such as the blooming of flowers and trees in the Spring, and the migration of birds in the Spring and Fall. Even if the trees and birds are not the same as in Japan, the concepts are still the same.

On the other hand, climatic conditions can often be very different from what the Japanese are used to. The Tropics, for example, are very different from the Temperate climate of Japan and usually only have a wet or Monsoon season, and a dry season. The Tornado Alley area of the United States has its tornado season (peaking from late winter through mid summer, depending upon latitude). Areas with a Mediterranean climate, such as Western Australia, coastal California, and Spain have their Summer Fire Season. On the other hand, in the Caribbean and the North Atlantic, plus surrounding areas, it is Hurricane Season during the Summer and Autumn months.

There are many local cultures around the world, but you can still find both similarities and differences. One similarity is that many areas have harvest festivals with bonfires. One difference between locations is that for a bird that migrates, some places will view that bird as a Winter resident, or as a Spring and Summer breeder, or as a Fall and Spring migrant.

For some examples of non-Japanese kigo, here are some from Southern California:

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Jacarandatree.jpg
a large Jacaranda tree in full bloom

Kigo and haiku: an example

An Australian  (kawazu).
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An Australian frog (kawazu).

In the famous haiku by Matsuo Basho below, "frog" is an all spring kigo. Haiku have been traditionally written about the singing of mating frogs, but Basho chose to focus on a very different sound.

ふるいけや Furuike ya
かわずとびこむ Kawazu tobikomu
みずのおと Mizu no oto
An old pond!
A frog jumps in—
the sound of water.

Must haiku include a kigo?

For classic pre-Meiji era haiku (before 1868), almost all haiku had a kigo. For example, Japanese experts have classified only about 10 of Matsuo Bashō's (1644-1694) hokku in the miscellaneous (zō) category (out of about one thousand hokku). As with most of the pre-Meiji poets, Bashō were primarily a haikai no renga poet (that is, he composed linked verse with other poets), so he also wrote plenty of miscellaneous and love stanzas for the interior lines of a renga. Usually about half the stanzas in a renga do not reference a season. Basho also thought that if a hokku contains an utamakura, then the kigo should be omitted (an utamakura is a place name with poetic connotations and is used as a keyword—utamakura are usually used in waka and not in haiku).

A little later Kobayashi Issa (1763-1828) (who wrote mostly haiku and not renga) wrote 109 haiku without season words (out of a total of roughly 20,000 haiku).

The Meiji era poet Masaoka Shiki (1867-1902), who recommended several major reforms to the writing of haiku and tanka including an expansion in subject matter and vocabulary, still included kigo in most of his haiku. Experts have classified a few hundred of Shiki's haiku in the miscellaneous category (out of the few thousand that he wrote). His follower and the most Takahama Kyoshi, who was the most influenced haiku poet in the next generation of Shiki, also emphasized kigo. However, in the early of the 20th century, there have been a number of later Japanese poets, such as Taneda Santōka, Ogiwara Seisensui, Ozaki Hōsai, Nakatsuka Ippekirō, and Natsuishi Ban'ya who have been less concerned about the traditions of haiku such as the inclusion of kigo. Still, even for these iconoclasts, many of their haiku include kigo.

A birthday cake
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A birthday cake

Most haiku written today still follow the traditional form and include a kigo. For many haiku groups and haiku publications, haiku must include a kigo. For the haiku traditionalist, anything that doesn't have a kigo is something else, either senryu (comic haikai) or zappai (miscellaneous haikai). Until a few modern saijiki added the miscellaneous category, any seasonless haiku would not have been included as an example haiku in a saijiki, which are the major references for haiku poets in Japan.

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House_sparrow1.jpg
a pair of House Sparrows (suzume).

There are, however, some reformers who have made suggestions such as using the idea of keywords (which would include kigo as a subset). Keywords are words, such as dawn, birthday cake, ocean wave, beggar or dog, that have strong associations with them, but are not usually associated with a particular season. Birds that do not migrate, such as Pigeons or House Sparrows are additional examples of keywords (or could be considered nonseasonal topics).

References

Print

  • 『入門歳時記』大野林火監修、俳句文学館編。角川書店 、ISBN 4-0406-3000-9. [Title: "Introductory Saijiki", editor: "Ōno Rinka", Publisher: Kadokawa Shoten ]
  • Haiku World: An International Poetry Almanac by William J. Higginson, Kodansha International 1996 ISBN 4-7700-2090-2 (An international haiku saijiki with over 1,000 haiku and senryu from poets in 50 countries covering 680 seasonal topics)
  • The Haiku Seasons: Poetry of the Natural World by William J. Higginson, Kodansha International 1996 ISBN 4-7700-1629-8 (a companion book to Haiku World discussing the development of haiku, and the importance of the seasons and kigo to haiku)

Online

Online lists of regional season words

See also

es:kigo

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