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Lincoln

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City of Lincoln
Lincoln Lincoln
Shown within Lincolnshire
Geography
Status:City
Region:East Midlands
Admin. County:Lincolnshire
Area:
- Total
Ranked 328th
35.69 km²
Admin. HQ:Lincoln
ONS code:32UD
Demographics
Population:
- Total (2003 est.)
- Density
Ranked 265th
86,004
2,410 / km²
Ethnicity:97.8% White
Politics
Arms of The City of Lincoln Council
Arms of
The City of Lincoln Council
Argent on a cross Gules a fleur-de-lis Or
http://www.lincoln.gov.uk/
Leadership:Leader & Cabinet
Executive:Labour
MP:Gillian Merron

Lincoln (pronounced "Ling-kun") is a cathedral city and county town of Lincolnshire, England, a bridging point over the River Witham, which flows to Boston. Its twin town is Neustadt, Germany.

Contents

History

The Romans

Under the Romans, Lincoln was a flourishing colony named Lindum Colonia, and was at the northern end of the Fosse Way Roman road. The Romans also dug the Fosseway Canal (Fossdyke), linking the rivers Witham and Trent, and also dug an inland Quay at the Brayford Pool ('bray ford' means 'the place to cross the swamp'). This allowed boats to get freely all the way to Lincoln and beyond, and it became a flourishing inland port. During this period it was populated mainly by the local populace and retired legionnaires. When the romans left, the drainage ditches and waterways fell into decline, and by the 5th century the city was virtually deserted.

The Dark Ages

It was not until the city was first affected by Viking Raids in the late 9th century that the city once again rose to importance. After the establishment of Dane Law in 886, Lincoln became one of five boroughs in the East Midlands. Over the next few centuries, Lincoln once again rose to prominence. In 1068, two years after the Norman Conquest, William I ordered a castle to be built on the site of the former Roman settlement. Lincoln Cathedral was built in 1092. By 1150, Lincoln was amongst the wealthiest towns in Britain. The basis of the economy was cloth and wool; Lincoln weavers had set up a guild in 1130 to produce Lincoln Cloth, especially the fine dyed "scarlet" and "green" the reputation of which was later enhanced by Robin Hood wearing "Lincoln Green".

The Middle Ages

Missing image
Lincoln_Cathedral.jpg
The West Front of Lincoln Cathedral

When the Magna Carta was drawn up in 1215, one of the witnesses was Hugh of Wells, Bishop of Lincoln. A copy is now preserved in Lincoln Castle. After this time, the city's fortunes began to decline. The lower city was prone to flooding, becoming increasingly isolated, and plagues were common. The dissolution of the monasteries further exacerbated Lincoln's problems, and between 1642 and 1651, during the English Civil War, Lincoln was on the frontier between the Royalist and Parliamentary forces. Military control of the city therefore changed hands numerous times. Many buildings were badly damaged. Lincoln now had no major industry, no easy access to the sea and was poorly placed. As a consequence of this, while the rest of the country was beginning to prosper in the beginning of the 1700s, Lincoln suffered immensely, travellers often commenting on the state of what had essentially become a "one street" town.

The Georgian Age

By the Georgian era, Lincoln's fortunes began to pick up, thanks in part to the Agrarian Revolution. The re-opening of the Foss Dyke allowed things like coal to be brought to the city.

The Industrial Revolution

Coupled with the arrival of the railway links, Lincoln boomed again during the industrial Revolution, and several world famous companies arose, such as Rustons, Smith-Claytons, Proctors, and William Fosters. Lincoln began to excel in heavy engineering, building diesel engine trains, steam shovels, and all manner of heavy machinery.

The 20th Century

In the World Wars, Lincoln naturally switched to war production. The first tanks were designed and built in Lincoln by William Foster & Co. Ltd during the First World War and population growth provided more workers for even greater expansion. During the Second World War, Lincoln produced a vast array of war goods, from tanks, aircraft, munitions, and military vehicles. Ruston and Hornsby produced diesel engines for ships and locomotives, then by teaming up with former colleagues of Frank Whittle and Power Jets Ltd, in the early 1950s, R & H (which became RGT) started to produce gas turbine engines for land-based & sea-based energy production. They were taken over by GEC in the late 1960s (diesel engine production was transferred to a division of GEC in Newton-le-Willows), merged with Alstom of France in the late 1980s, then in 2003 were bought out by Siemens AG of Germany, now being called Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery. In the post-war years after 1945, new suburbs were built, but unfortunately industry declined towards the end of the 20th Century.

Modern Lincoln

Today, Lincoln's economy is based mainly on public administration, commerce and arable farming. The loss of an all day direct train service to and from London around 1980, when the Kings Cross to Doncaster route was electrified, deterred inward movement by new employers. In the 1990s, Lincoln Art College and Riseholme Agricultural College became part of De Montfort University in Leicester. Thanks to the dogged support and also vision of local commerce, the University of Humberside opened a Lincoln campus next to Brayford Pool in 1996, changing the name to University of Lincolnshire and Humberside. This has attracted additional students to the city, giving it a refreshing youthful appearance, and possibly a more outward-looking viewpoint. The Lincoln campus took priority over the Hull Campus (which is now closing down), and as such the name changed in 2002 to the University of Lincoln, taking over the Art College and Riseholme College. The city is a tourist centre, but is never overwhelmed by tourists; those who come do so to visit the numerous historic buildings, including of course, the Cathedral and the Castle. The Usher Gallery and the Museum of Lincolnshire Life are other important attractions. Tranquil destinations close by include Whisby Nature Reserve and Hartsholme Park, whilst noisier entertainment can be found at Waddington airfield, Scampton airfield, base of the RAF's "Red Arrows" jet aerobatic team, the County Showground or the Cadwell Park motor racing circuit near Louth. The local newspaper is the Lincolnshire Echo, and the local radio stations are Radio Lincolnshire on 94.9FM and it's commercial rival Lincs FM on 102.2 FM.

Football (soccer) team Lincoln City F.C. are based in the city.

See also

External References


Districts of England - East Midlands Flag of England

Amber Valley | Ashfield | Bassetlaw | Blaby | Bolsover | Boston | Broxtowe | Charnwood | Chesterfield | Corby | Daventry | Derby | Derbyshire Dales | East Lindsey | East Northamptonshire | Erewash | Gedling | Harborough | High Peak | Hinckley and Bosworth | Kettering | Leicester | Lincoln | Mansfield | Melton | Newark and Sherwood | Northampton | North East Derbyshire | North Kesteven | North West Leicestershire | Nottingham | Oadby and Wigston | Rushcliffe | Rutland | South Derbyshire | South Holland | South Kesteven | South Northamptonshire | Wellingborough | West Lindsey

Administrative counties with multiple districts: Derbyshire - Leicestershire - Lincolnshire - Northamptonshire - Nottinghamshire

de:Lincoln (Großbritannien)

fr:Lincoln pl:Lincoln

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