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List of Lithuanian rulers

From Academic Kids

The following is a List of Lithuanian rulers, or a list of kings, dukes, grand dukes, governors and presidents of Lithuania or administrative units, that encompassed the territory of Lithuania during the periods of occupations. The part of the list, concerning the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, includes most common English names of incumbents, as well as their Lithuanian, Ruthenian (later Belarusian) and Polish names.

During the Polish-Lithuanian Union and the times of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the thrones of Crown of Poland and Grand Duchy of Lithuania were joined by a personal union. The monarchs hovewer retained separate titles for both parts of the state, and their numbering was kept separately. Because of that, several rulers of Lithuania have different numbers as Lithuanian grand dukes and as Polish kings.

Contents

The (Grand) Duchy of Lithuania

Title: Grand Prince (‘vjaliki knjazţ’ in Belarusian, ‘wielki książę’ in Polish, ‘Kunigaikštis’ or ’Didysis Kunigaikštis’ in Lithuanian)


Early rulers

Term Incumbent Lithuanian name Ruthenian name Polish name Remarks
Semi-legendary rulers of Lithuania
(????–????)

Kiernus
Skirmunt Skirmantas
Giligin
Roman of Ruthenia Roman
Semi-legendary Lithuanian princes
(????–????)
Dates approximate
1219 to 1238 Ringaudas or Steksys Ringaudas alias Rimgaudas Father of Mindaugas
1238 Dausprungas
First of Lithuanian Grand Dukes
(12631291)
Dates approximate
1236 to 1263 Mindaugas Mindaugas Mindouh Mendog Initially Prince, since 1253 King of Lithuania, lost the title in 1262 upon returning to paganism, but changed the title to Grand Duke; killed by his nephew Treniota
1263 to 1264 Treniota Son of Skirmantas
1264 to 1267 Vaišvilkas Vaišvilkas Vojszalak Son of Mindaugas, died heirless
1267 to 1269 Švarnas Švarnas Shvarno
1269 to 1281 Traidenis Traidenis Trajdzien Trojden
1281 to 1285 Daumantas Daumantas Dowmont Dowmont
1285 to 1291 Butegeidis Butegeidis alias Butigeidis Budzikid Budzikid Ancestor of the later Gediminid dynasty
Early Gediminaid dynasty
Gediminaičių dinastija (1291 - 1316)
Dates approximate
1291 Butvydas Butvydas alias Budvydas Budwid Brother of Butigeidis, father of Vytenis
1295 - 1315 Vytenis Vytenis Witenes Brother of Gediminas

Gediminid dynasty

Term Incumbent Lithuanian name Ruthenian name Polish name Remarks
Gediminaid dynasty
Gediminaičių dinastija (13161572)
Some dates approximate
1316 to 1344 Gediminas Gediminas Giedymin Giedymin Son of Skalmantas, crowned as King of Lithuanians and Ruthenians in 1316, after his death the domain divided between his 7 sons
1341 to 1345 Jaunutis Jaunutis Jewnut Jewnuta Overlord and Grand Duke, deposed by his brothers Algirdas and Kęstutis
1345 to 1377 Algirdas Algirdas Olgierd Olgierd Father of Jogaila who became the king of Poland
1377 to 1381
1382 to 1392
Jogaila Jogaila Jahajla Władysław II Jagiełło Grand Duke between 1377 and 1381 and then 1382 to 1392, crowned the King of Poland in 1386; starter of the Polish Jagiellon dynasty
1381 to 1382 Kęstutis Kęstutis Kiejstut Kiejstut
1392 to 1401 Skirgaila Skirgaila Skiryhajla Skirgiełło Jagiełło's governor of Lithuania, not the actual Grand Duke
1392 to 1430 Vytautas the Great Vytautas Witaut Witold Initially a factual ruler of Lithuania, Grand Duke since 1401, was to be crowned King of Lithuania in 1429, but the crown never arrived
1430 to 1432 Švitrigaila Švitrigaila Svidryhajla Świdrygiełło Deposed by followers of Zygimantas son of Kestutis
1432 to 1440 Sigismund I, son of Kestutis Žygimantas Kęstutatis Zygimont I Kejstutavicz Zygmunt Kiejstutowicz

Personal union with Poland

Term Incumbent Lithuanian name Ruthenian name Polish name Remarks
Jagiellon dynasty
Jogailaičiai dinastija, direct continuation of the Gediminids (14401572)
1440 to 1492 Casimir IV Kazimieras I Jogailaitis Kazimir Jahelonczyk Kazimierz IV Jagiellończyk Grand Duke since 1440, crowned the king of Poland in 1444 after the death of king Władysław
1492 to 1505 Alexander I Aleksandras II Alaksandr Aleksander I
1505 to 1548 Sigismund I the Old Žygimantas II Senasis Žygimont II Stary Zygmunt I Stary In 1522 ceded his ducal right to his son.
1529 to 1572 Sigismund II Augustus Žygimantas III Augustas Žygimont III August Zygmunt II August Grand Duke and King of Poland since 1529, though he did not assume the power in Poland until the death of his father in 1548; last of the Jagiellons, after his death all kings and grand dukes were elected by the parliament.
de Valois Dynasty
Dynastia Walezych (15721573)
1573 to 1574 Henry III de Valois Henrikas Valua Anry Valua Henryk Walezy He abandoned the throne and fled to France where he was crowned as Henri III
House of Báthory
(15761586)
1576 to 1586 Stephen Bathory Steponas Batoras Stiapan Batura Stefan Batory
Vasa Dynasty
Dynastia Wazów (15871668)
1587 to 1632 Sigismund III Zigmantas IV Vaza Žyhimont III Vaza Zygmunt III Waza Proponent of a personal union between The Republic and Sweden, King of Sweden between 1592 and 1599
1632 to 1648 Ladislaus IV Vasa Vladislovas II Vaza Uladzislaǔ I Vaza Władysław IV Waza
1648 to 1668 John II Casimir Vasa Jonas I Kazimieras Vaza Jan Kazimier Vaza Jan Kazimierz Abdicated and became a monk, last of the Vasa dynasty in Poland-Lithuania
Polish szlachta families
(16691696)
1669 to 1673 Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki Mykolas I Kaributas Vošnioveckis Michał Karybut Wišniaviecki Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki
1674 to 1696 John III Sobieski Jonas II Sobieskis Jan III Sobieski
Wettin Dynasty
Dynastia Wettinów (16971706 and 17091766)
1697 to 1706
1709 to 1733
Augustus II the Strong Augustas II Saksas Aǔhust II Mocny August II Mocny also Elector of Saxony as Frederick Augustus I
1733 to 1763 August III Wettin Augustas III Saksas August III Sas August III Saski
War of Polish Succession
(1733-1738)
1706 to 1709
1733 to 1736
Stanisław Leszczyński Stanislovas I Leščinskis Stanisław Leszczyński
Polish szlachta family
(17641795)
1764 to 1795 Stanisław August Poniatowski Stanislovas II Augustas Poniatovskis Stanisław August Poniatowski During his reign the merger of the Grand Duchy with the Kingdom of Poland was passed in 1791; abdicated following the Partitions of Poland; died in exile in Russia

Lithuania as part of Imperial Russia

The Kingdom of Lithuania

Title: King (‘Karalius’ in Lithuanian, ‘karolţ’ in Belarusian, ‘król’ in Polish)

Term Incumbent Lithuanian name Ruthenian name Polish name Remarks
Württemberg Dynasty
(1918)
1918 Mindaugas II Mindaugas II Mindouh II Mendog II King-elect, installed at the end of World War I by the victorious Central Powers as part of their Mitteleuropa plan, ousted after the German defeat when Lithuania became a republic, never actually assumed his powers.

Republic of Lithuania (1918 - 1940)

Title: President (Prezidentas in Lithuanian language)

Term Officeholder Remarks
Presidents of the Republic of Lithuania
(1918 - 1940)
April 4, 1919 to June 19, 1920 Antanas Smetona
June 19, 1920 to June 7, 1926 Aleksandras Stulginskis
June 7 to December 18, 1926 Kazys Grinius Elected by the parliament, but overthrown by a military coup d'etat
December 18 to December 19, 1926 Jonas Staugaitis Formally, for one day, as the head of Seimas (renounced the office after the coup d'etat)
December 19, 1926 Aleksandras Stulginskis Formally, as the new head of Seimas, only for several hours
December 19, 1926 to June 15, 1940 Antanas Smetona 2nd term, elected president after a military coup d'etat; after the Soviet ultimatum of 1940 he defected to Germany and then to the US of A
June 15 to June 17, 1940 Antanas Merkys The Prime Minister, de facto acting president after Smetona's defection
June 17 to July 21, 1940 Justas Paleckis Chosen unconstitutionally by leaders of Lithuanian communists under pressure from the Soviet Union, not recognized internationally nor by the Lithuanian diplomatic service

Republic of Lithuania (1941)

Title: Prime Minister (Ministeris pirmininkas in Lithuanian language)

Republic of Lithuania in exile

Resistance

Early Soviet Lithuania

Lithuania as part of the Soviet Union

The First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Lithuanian SSR was leader de-facto.
Title: First Secretary of the Lithuanian Communist Party

Present Republic of Lithuania

Missing image
President-Lithuania-Flag.png
Flag of the President of Lithuania

Title: Chairman of the Supreme Council


Title: President

External link

de:Liste der Präsidenten Litauens fr:Présidents de Lituanie lt:Lietuvos Prezidentų sąrašas nl:Lijst van staatshoofden van Litouwen no:Litauens statsledere pl:Prezydenci Litwy ru:Ńďčńîę ďđŕâčňĺëĺé Ëčňâű

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