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The Glass Bead Game

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(Redirected from Magister Ludi)

The Glass Bead Game (German: Das Glasperlenspiel) is the last work of noted German author Hermann Hesse; he began it as his magnum opus in 1931, and it was published in 1943. It is sometimes titled Magister Ludi in English (or Magister Ludi (Master of the Game)); "Glass Bead Game" is a literal translation of the German title, and "Magister Ludi" (Latin for "master of the game") is the name of a central character in the book. The name Magister Ludi can also be seen as a pun: 'lud' is the Latin stem for both game and school. Teaching and learning are both strong themes within the book.

The Glass Bead Game centers around a monastic order of intellectuals in the fictional province of Castalia. The story takes place in the distant future and is recorded by a future historian. The 20th century is referred to only vaguely as a long past, intellectually superficial and decadent period.

In this setting of Castalia the movements of Joseph Knecht (whose name "Knecht" translates to "servant" or "farm hand") are chronicled by the book. Of particular interest is the relationship Knecht holds with a learned monk, Father Jacobus. In his introduction to Demian, Thomas Mann likens his own relationship to Hesse to the relationship of Knecht to Jacobus, going on to say that their knowledge of each other was not possible without a great extent of ceremony. He even extrapolates on Hesse's observance of Oriental customs in the novel. Hesse's communal perspective of East combined with West is apparent even in this last work of his old age.

The Glass Bead Game itself

At the epicenter of this society lies the (fictitious) glass bead game. The precise rules of the game are only alluded to, and must be so sophisticated that they are not easy to imagine. Essentially the game is an abstract synthesis of all arts and scholarship. It proceeds by players making deep connections between seemingly unrelated topics. For example, a Bach concerto may be related to a mathematical formula.

The glass bead game derives its name from the fact that it was originally played with tokens, perhaps analogous to those of an abacus or the game go. At the time that the novel takes place, these had become obsolete and the game was played only with abstract, spoken formulas. The audience's appreciation of a good game is reminiscent of both music appreciation and elegance in mathematics.

Apart from the connection to go, the concept of the glass bead game seems similar to some ideas by Leibniz about a universal calculus (in the most general sense) or formal system, such as his dream of a Mathesis universalis.

Although invented after Hesse's death, Conway's Game of Life could be seen as an example of a go-like glass bead game with surprisingly deep properties; since it can encode Turing machines, it contains in some sense everything.

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