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Modular synthesizer

From Academic Kids

The modular synthesizer is an early type of synthesizer consisting of separate modules which must be connected by wires to create a so called patch. These synthesizers are very flexible. Instead of audio, every output generates a voltage (or a current). All inputs expect a voltage, so that almost any combination of connections between the modules is allowed and valid.

There exist many different modules and even the modules with the same function have different inputs and output on various models. But there are some standards which manufactures followed for their range of synthesizers. Connecting synthesizers from different manufactures often requires converters however.

Some standard modules found on almost any modular synth are:

  • VCO - Voltage Controlled Oscillator, which will play a note in a simple waveform (most usually a square wave or a sawtooth wave)
  • VCF - Voltage Controlled Filter, which filters out all sounds above (high-pass), below (low-pass) or both above and below (band-pass) a certain frequency
  • VCA - Voltage controlled amplifier, which controls the amplitude or overall volume
  • ADSR - Envelope generator that is used to modulate a VCA to change the overall volume of the sound. This simulates the volume contour of natural decaying sounds like a piano. The modular structure of the synthesizer makes it possible to use the envelope generator for modulating other parameters like the cutoff frequency of the filter, so the timbre of the sound can be changed while the sound progresses.
  • LFO - Low Frequency Oscillator, from which the output is a low frequency waveform, most usually a sine or triangle wave, usually used as a control for some other module (for instance, to modulate the frequency of the VCO's output)
  • Mixer, a module that combines multiple signals into one.
  • Sample and hold, which takes a snapshot of the input voltage on a trigger pulse and keep it steady even when the input voltage changes.
  • Sequencer, which produces a sequence of notes, usually a music loop
  • Slew Limiter - smooths off the peaks of voltages. This can be used to ceate glide or portamento between notes. Can also work as a primitive low-pass filter.

Modular synthesizers were largely replaced by highly integrated keyboard synthesizers, racks of MIDI-connected gear, and samplers. However, there continues to be a loyal following of musicians and manufacturers who prefer the physically-patched approach and flexibility of traditional modulars.

Contents

Modern manufacturers of modular synthesizer hardware (alphabetical)

Computers have grown so powerful and inexpensive that software programs can realistically model the signals, sounds, and patchability of modulars very well. While potentially lacking the physical presence of knobs, sliders, cables, and LEDs, software modular synthesizers offer the infinite variations and visual patching at a more affordable price and in a compact form factor.

Modular synthesizer software (alphabetical)

Hybrid modular synthesizers (hardware&software combination) (alphabetical)

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