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Montane grasslands and shrublands

From Academic Kids

Montane grasslands and shrublands is biome defined by the World Wildlife Fund. The biome includes at high altitude (montane, subalpine, and alpine) grasslands and shrublands around the world.

Montane grasslands and shrublands, particularly in subtropical and tropical regions, often evolved as virtual islands, separated from other montane regions by warmer, lower elevation regions, and are frequently home to many distinctive and endemic plants.

Montane grasslands and shrublands located above the treeline are commonly known as alpine tundra, which occurs in mountain regions around the world. Below the treeline are subalpine and montane grasslands and shrublands. Stunted subalpine forests are known as krummholz, and occur just below the treeline, where harsh, windy conditions and poor soils create dwarfed and twisted forests of slow-growing trees.

In subtropical and tropical mountains, distinctive plant communities have evolved in response to the cool, wet climate with abundant sunlight, the most extensive of which is the Neotropic Paramo of the Andes Mountains. Characteristic plants of these habitats display adaptations such as rosette structures, waxy surfaces, and hairy leaves. In addition to the paramo, these conditions occur in the mountains of east and central Africa, Mount Kinabalu of Borneo, and the Central Highlands of New Guinea. A unique feature of many wet tropical montane regions is the presence of giant rosette plants from a variety of plant families, such as Lobelia (Afrotropic), Puya (Neotropic), Cyathea (New Guinea), and Argyroxiphium (Hawaii).

Where conditions are drier, one finds montane grasslands, savannas, and woodlands, like the Ethiopian Highlands, and montane steppes, like the steppes of the Tibetan Plateau.

Montane Grasslands and Shrublands Ecoregions

Afrotropic ecozone
Angolan montane forest-grassland mosaicAngola
Angolan scarp savanna and woodlandsAngola
Drakensberg alti-montane grasslands and woodlandsLesotho, South Africa
Drakensberg montane grasslands, woodlands and forestsLesotho, South Africa, Swaziland
East African montane moorlandsKenya, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda
Eastern Zimbabwe montane forest-grassland mosaicMozambique, Zimbabwe
Ethiopian montane grasslands and woodlandsEthiopia
Ethiopian montane moorlandsEthiopia
Highveld grasslandsLesotho, South Africa
Jos Plateau forest-grassland mosaicNigeria
Madagascar ericoid thicketsMadagascar
Maputaland-Pondoland bushland and thicketsMozambique, South Africa, Swaziland
Ruwenzori-Virunga montane moorlandsDemocratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Uganda
South Malawi montane forest-grassland mosaicMalawi, Mozambique
Southern Rift montane forest-grassland mosaicMalawi, Tanzania
Australasia ecozone
Australian Alps montane grasslandsAustralia
Central Range sub-alpine grasslandsIndonesia, Papua New Guinea
Southland montane grasslandsNew Zealand
Indomalaya ecozone
Kinabalu montane alpine meadowsIndonesia
Neotropic ecozone
Central Andean dry punaArgentina, Bolivia, Chile
Central Andean punaArgentina, Bolivia, Peru
Central Andean wet punaBolivia, Peru
Cordillera Central páramoEcuador, Peru
Cordillera de Merida páramoVenezuela
Northern Andean páramoColombia, Ecuador
Santa Marta páramoColombia
Southern Andean steppeArgentina, Chile
ZacatonalMexico
Palearctic ecozone
Altai alpine meadow and tundraChina, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Russia
Central Tibetan Plateau alpine steppeChina
Eastern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadowsBhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal
Ghorat-Hazarajat alpine meadowAfghanistan
Hindu Kush alpine meadowAfghanistan, Pakistan
Karakoram-West Tibetan Plateau alpine steppeAfghanistan, China, India, Pakistan
Khangai Mountains alpine meadowMongolia
Kopet Dag woodlands and forest steppeIran, Turkmenistan
Kuhrud-Kohbanan Mountains forest steppeIran
Mediterranean High Atlas juniper steppeMorocco
North Tibetan Plateau-Kunlun Mountains alpine desertChina
Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadowsChina, India, Pakistan
Ordos Plateau steppeChina
Pamir alpine desert and tundraAfghanistan, China, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan
Qilian Mountains subalpine meadowsChina
Sayan Alpine meadows and tundraMongolia, Russia
Southeast Tibet shrub and meadowsChina
Sulaiman Range alpine meadowsAfghanistan, Pakistan
Tian Shan montane steppe and meadowsChina, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan
Tibetan Plateau alpine shrub and meadowsChina
Western Himalayan alpine shrub and meadowsIndia, Nepal
Yarlung Zambo arid steppeChina


Template:Terrestrial biomes


Ecozones
Afrotropic | Antarctic | Australasia | Indomalaya | Nearctic | Neotropic | Oceania | Palearctic

External link

more on this biome (http://www.panda.org/about_wwf/where_we_work/ecoregions/global200/pages/habitat/habitat10.htm)

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