Advertisement

Native American languages

From Academic Kids

Native American languages are the indigenous languages of the Americas, spoken by Native Americans from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America. The Native American languages consist of dozens of distinct language families as well as many language isolates. Many proposals to group these into higher-level families have been made by some linguists, but several of these have not been generally accepted.

Contents

Background

Archeological and DNA evidence suggests that the Americas were peopled by migrants from Siberia about 17,000-10,000 years ago. From Alaska, the descendants of those first migrants went on to people the rest of North and South America. The language or languages spoken by these early migrants, and the process by which the current diversity of Native American languages emerged, are a matter of speculation. Some evidence suggests that the ancestors of the Na-Dene and Eskimo-Aleut speakers arrived separately from Siberia some time after the earliest settlers.

Several Native American languages have developed their own writing systems, including the Mayan languages and Nahuatl, the language of the Aztecs. These and many other Native American languages later adapted the Roman alphabet or Canadian Aboriginal Syllabics. Aleut was first written by missionaries in the Cyrillic Alphabet, and later in the Roman alphabet.

Subsequent to the arrival of Christopher Columbus in the Americas in 1492, Spanish, English, Portuguese, French, and Dutch were brought to the Americas by European settlers and administrators, and constitute the official languages of the independent states of the Americas, although Bolivia, Paraguay and Peru have one or more Native American languages as an official language in addition to Spanish. Several indigenous creole languages developed in the Americas from European languages.

The attitudes of the most of the European colonizers and their successor states toward Native American languages ranged from benign neglect to active suppression.

However, the Spanish missionaries preached to the natives in local languages. They actually spread Quechua beyond its original geographic area. Native American languages vary greatly in the number of speakers, from Quechua, Aymara, Guarani, and Nahuatl with millions of active speakers to a number of languages with only a handful of elderly speakers. Many Native American languages are endangered, and many others are extinct, with no living native speakers.

Language families & isolates by region

South America

Although both North and Central America are very diverse areas, South America has a linguistic diversity rivalled by only a few other places in the world with approximately 350 languages still spoken and an estimated 1,500 languages at first European contact. The situation of language documentation and classification into genetic families is not as advanced as in North America (which is relatively well-studied in many areas). Therefore many relationships between languages and language families have not determined and some of those relationships that have been proposed are on somewhat shaky ground.

The list of language families and isolates below is a rather conservative one based on Campbell (1997). Many of the proposed (and often speculative) groupings of families can be seen in Campbell (1997), Gordon (2005), Kaufman (1990, 1994), Key (1979), Loukotka (1968), and in the Language stock proposals section below.

Families (south)

  1. Alacalufan (2)
  2. Arauan (8) (a.k.a. Arahuan, Arawán)
  3. Araucanian (Chile, Argentina) (2) (a.k.a. Mapudungu)
  4. Arawakan (South America & Caribbean) (60) (a.k.a. Arahuacan, Maipurean, Maipuran, Maipúrean)
  5. Arutani-Sape (2)
  6. Aymaran (3) (Jaqi, Aru)
  7. Barbacoan (6) (a.k.a. Barbakóan)
  8. Cahuapanan (2) (a.k.a. Jebero, Kawapánan)
  9. Carib (29)
  10. Catacaoan (Katakáoan)
  11. Chapacura-Wanham (9) (a.k.a. Chapacuran, Txapakúran, Chapakúran)
  12. Charruan (Charrúan)
  13. Chibchan (Central America & South America) (22)
  14. Chimuan
  15. Chipaya-Uru languages (Uru-Chipaya)
  16. Choco (10) (a.k.a. Chocoan, Chokó)
  17. Cholonan
  18. Chon (2) (Patagonian)
  19. Guajiboan (4) (a.k.a. Wahívoan)
  20. Guaykuruan (Waikurúan)
  21. Harákmbut (2) (a.k.a. Tuyoneri)
  22. Jirajaran (3)
  23. Jivaroan (4) (a.k.a. Hívaro)
  24. Katukinan (3) (a.k.a. Catuquinan)
  25. Lule-Vilela (1) (Lule-Viléran)
  26. Macro-Ge (32)
  27. Maku (6)
  28. Mascoyan (5) (Maskóian, Mascoian)
  29. Mataco-Guaicuru (11)
  30. Mosetenan (1) (Mosetén)
  31. Mura (4) (Muran)
  32. Nambiquaran (5)
  33. Otomacoan (2) (a.k.a. Otomákoan)
  34. Paezan (6) (a.k.a. Páesan)
  35. Pano-Tacanan (30) (Pano-Takana, Pano-Tákanan)
  36. Peba-Yaguan (2) (a.k.a. Yaguan, Yáwan, Peban)
  37. Puinavean (a.k.a. Makú)
  38. Quechuan (46)
  39. Salivan (2)
  40. Timotean (2)
  41. Tiniguan (2) (a.k.a. Tiníwan)
  42. Tucanoan (25) (a.k.a. Tukánoan)
  43. Tupi (70)
  44. Uru-Chipaya (2)
  45. Witotoan (6) (a.k.a. Huitotoan, Bora-Witótoan)
  46. Yanomam (4)
  47. Zamucoan (2)
  48. Zaparoan (7) (a.k.a. Sáparoan)

Isolates or unclassified (south)

  1. Aikaná (Brazil: Rondônia)
  2. Ahuaqué (a.k.a. Auaké, Uruak, Awaké)
  3. Andoque (Colombia, Peru) (a.k.a. Andoke)
  4. Aushiri (a.k.a. Auxira)
  5. Baenan (Brazil)
  6. Betoi (Columbia) (a.k.a. Betoy, Jirara)
  7. Camsá (Colombia) (a.k.a. Sibundoy, Coche, Kamsá)
  8. Candoshi (a.k.a. Maina, Kandoshi)
  9. Canichana (Bolivia) (a.k.a. Canesi, Kanichana)
  10. Cayubaba (Bolivia)
  11. Cofán (Colombia, Ecuador) (a.k.a. Kofán)
  12. Cueva
  13. Culle (Peru) (a.k.a. Culli, Linga, Kulyi)
  14. Cunza (Chile, Bolivia, Argentina) (a.k.a. Atacama, Atakama, Atacameño, Lipe, Kunsa)
  15. Esmeralda (a.k.a. Takame)
  16. Gamela (Brazil: Maranhão)
  17. Gorgotoqui (Bolivia)
  18. Guamo (Venezuela) (a.k.a. Wamo)
  19. Huamoé (Brazil: Pernambuco)
  20. Huarpe (Warpe)
  21. Irantxe (Brazil: Mato Grosso)
  22. Itonama (Bolivia) (a.k.a. Saramo, Machoto)
  23. Jotí (Venezuela)
  24. Kaliana (a.k.a. Caliana, Cariana, Sapé, Chirichano)
  25. Kapixaná (Brazil: Rondônia) (a.k.a. Kanoé, Kapishaná)
  26. Karirí (Brazil: Paraíba, Pernambuco, Ceará)
  27. Kaweskar (Alacaluf, Alakaluf, Kawaskar, Kawesqar, Qawasqar, Qawashqar, Halawalip, Aksaná, Hekaine, Chono, Caucau, Kaueskar, Aksanás, Kaweskar, Kawéskar, Kakauhau, Kaukaue)
  28. Koayá (Brazil: Rondônia)
  29. Kukurá (Brazil: Mato Grosso)
  30. Leco (Lapalapa, Leko)
  31. Maku (a.k.a. Macu)
  32. Malibú (a.k.a. Malibu)
  33. Mapudungu (Chile, Argentina)
  34. Matanawí
  35. Mocana
  36. Movima (Bolivia)
  37. Munichi (Peru) (a.k.a. Muniche)
  38. Mutú (a.k.a. Loco)
  39. Nambiquaran (Brazil: Mato Grosso)
  40. Natú (Brazil: Pernambuco)
  41. Old Catío-Nutabe (Colombia)
  42. Omurano (Peru) (a.k.a. Mayna, Mumurana, Numurana, Maina, Rimachu, Roamaina, Umurano)
  43. Otí (Brazil: São Paulo)
  44. Palta
  45. Pankararú (Brazil: Pernambuco)
  46. Panzaleo (Ecuador) (a.k.a. Latacunga, Quito, Pansaleo)
  47. Puelche (a.k.a. Guenaken, Gennaken, Pampa, Pehuenche, Ranquelche)
  48. Puquina (Bolivia)
  49. Resígaro (Colombia-Peru border area)
  50. Sabela (Ecuador, Peru) (a.k.a. Auca, Huaorani)
  51. Sechura (Atalan, Sec)
  52. Salumã (Brazil)
  53. Tairona (Colombia)
  54. Tarairiú (Brazil: Rio Grande do Norte)
  55. Taushiro (Peru) (a.k.a. Pinchi, Pinche)
  56. Tequiraca (Peru) (a.k.a. Avishiri, Tekiraka)
  57. Ticuna (Colombia, Peru, Brazil) (a.k.a. Magta, Tikuna, Tucuna, Tukna, Tukuna)
  58. Trumai (Brazil: Xingu, Mato Grosso)
  59. Tuxá (Brazil: Bahia, Pernambuco)
  60. Urarina (a.k.a. Shimacu, Itukale)
  61. Warao (Guyana, Surinam, Venezuela) (a.k.a. Guarao)
  62. Xokó (Brazil: Alagoas, Pernambuco)
  63. Xukurú (Brazil: Pernambuco, Paraíba)
  64. Yámana (Chile) (a.k.a. Yagan, Yahgan, Yaghan, Yamana, Yámana)
  65. Yaruro (a.k.a. Jaruro)
  66. Yuracare (Bolivia)
  67. Yuri (Colombia, Brazil) (a.k.a. Jurí)
  68. Yurumanguí (Colombia) (a.k.a. Yirimangi)

Mexico and Central America

Families (central)

  1. Algic (North America & Mexico) (29)
  2. Chibchan (Central America & South America) (22)
  3. Comecrudan (Texas & Mexico) (3)
  4. Guaicurian (8) (a.k.a. Waikurian)
  5. Jicaquean
  6. Lencan
  7. Mayan (31)
  8. Misumalpan
  9. Mixe-Zoquean (19)
  10. Na-Dené (North America & Mexico) (40)
  11. Oto-Manguean (27)
  12. Tequistlatecan (3)
  13. Totonacan (2)
  14. Uto-Aztecan (North America & Mexico) (31)
  15. Xincan
  16. Yuman-Cochimí (North America & Mexico) (11)

Isolates or unclassified (central)

  1. Alagüilac (Guatemala)
  2. Coahuilteco (US: Texas; northeast Mexico)
  3. Cotoname (northeast Mexico; US: Texas)
  4. Cuitlatec (Mexico: Guerrero)
  5. Huetar (Costa Rica)
  6. Huave (Mexico: Oaxaca)
  7. Maratino (northeastern Mexico)
  8. Naolan (Mexico: Tamaulipas)
  9. Quinigua (northeast Mexico)
  10. Seri (Mexico: Sonora)
  11. Solano (northeast Mexico; US: Texas)
  12. Tarascan (Mexico: Michoacán) (a.k.a. Purépecha)

Greenland, Canada & U.S.

North American languages north of Mexico, i.e. Canada and the USA.

Missing image
Langs_N.Amer.png
distribution of North American languages north of Mexico

Families (north)

  1. Algic (30)
  2. Alsean (2)
  3. Caddoan (5)
  4. Chimakuan (2)
  5. Chinookan (3)
  6. Chumashan (6)
  7. Comecrudan (North America & Mexico) (3)
  8. Coosan (2)
  9. Eskimo-Aleut (7)
  10. Iroquoian (11)
  11. Kalapuyan (3)
  12. Keres (2)
  13. Kiowa-Tanoan (7)
  14. Maiduan (4)
  15. Muskogean (6)
  16. Na-Dené (North America & Mexico) (40)
  17. Palaihnihan (2)
  18. Plateau Penutian (4) (a.k.a. Shahapwailutan)
  19. Pomoan (7)
  20. Salishan (23)
  21. Shastan (4)
  22. Siouan (16)
  23. Tsimshian (2)
  24. Utian (12)
  25. Uto-Aztecan (31)
  26. Wakashan (6)
  27. Wintuan (4)
  28. Yokutsan (3)
  29. Yuman-Cochimí (11)

Isolates or unclassified (north)

  1. Adai (US: Louisiana, Texas)
  2. Atakapa (US: Louisiana, Texas)
  3. Beothuk (Canada: Newfoundland)
  4. Cayuse (US: Oregon, Washington)
  5. Chimariko (US: California)
  6. Chitimacha (US: Lousiania)
  7. Coahuilteco (US: Texas; northeast Mexico)
  8. Cotoname (northeast Mexico; US: Texas)
  9. Esselen (US: California)
  10. Haida (Canada: British Columbia; US: Alaska)
  11. Karankawa (US: Texas)
  12. Karok (a.k.a. Karuk) (US: California)
  13. Kootenai (Canada: British Columbia; US: Idaho, Montana)
  14. Natchez (US: Mississippi, Louisiana)
  15. Salinan (US: California)
  16. Siuslaw (US: Oregon)
  17. Solano (northeast Mexico; US: Texas)
  18. Takelma (US: Oregon)
  19. Timucua (US: Florida, Georgia)
  20. Tonkawa (US: Texas)
  21. Tunica (US: Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas)
  22. Wappo (US: California)
  23. Washo (US: California, Nevada)
  24. Yana (US: California)
  25. Yuchi (US: Georgia, Oklahoma)
  26. Yuki (US: California)
  27. Zuni (a.k.a. Shiwi) (US: New Mexico)

Language stock proposals

Many hypothetical language phylum proposals concerning American languages are often cited as uncontroversially demonstrated in more popular writings. However, many of these proposals have, in fact, not been fully demonstrated if even at all. Some proposals are viewed by specialists in a favorable light, believing that genetic relationships are very likely to be established in the future (e.g. the Penutian stock). Other proposals are more controversial with many linguists believing that some genetic relationships of a proposal may be demonstrated but much of it undemonstrated (e.g. Hokan, which, incidentally, Edward Sapir called his "wastepaper basket stock"). Still other proposals are almost unanimously rejected by specialists (e.g. Amerind). Below is a (partial) list of some such proposals:

  1. Algonkian-Gulf
  2. Almosan   (= Algic+Kutenai+Salishan+Wakashan+Chimakuan)
  3. Almosan-Keresiouan
  4. Amerind   (= all languages excepting Eskimo-Aleut & Nadene)
  5. Aztec-Tanoan   (= Uto-Aztecan+Kiowa-Tanoan)
  6. Chibchan-Paezan
  7. Coahuiltecan   (= Coahuilteco+Cotoname+Comecrudan+Karankawa+Tonkawa)
  8. Dene-Caucasian
  9. Gulf   (= Muskogean+Natchez+Tunica)
  10. Hokan   (= many languages of the western half of the US reaching into Mexico)
  11. Hokan-Siouan
  12. Keresiouan
  13. Macro-Carib
  14. Macro-Ge
  15. Macro-Mayan
  16. Macro-Panoan
  17. Macro-Siouan   (= Siouan+Iroquoian+Caddoan)
  18. Macro-Tucanoan
  19. Mosan   (= Salishan+Wakashan+Chimakuan)
  20. (Sapir's) Nadene (including Haida)   (= Haida+Tlingit+Eyak+Athabaskan)
  21. Nostratic-Amerind
  22. Penutian   (= many languages of California and sometimes languages in Mexico)
    1. California Penutian   (= Wintuan+Maiduan+Yokutsan+Utian)
    2. Oregon Penutian   (= Takelma+Coosan+Siuslaw+Alsean)
    3. Mexican Penutian   (= Mixe-Zoque+Huave)
  23. Quechumaran
  24. Takelman   (= Takelma+Kalapuyan)
  25. Wappo-Yukian   (= Wappo+Yukian)
  26. Yok-Utian   (= Yokutsan+Utian)

Good discussions of past proposals are found in Campbell (1997) and Campbell & Mithun (1979).

Pidgins, mixed languages, & trade languages

  1. Labrador Eskimo Pidgin (a.k.a. Labrador Inuit Pidgin)
  2. Hudson Strait Pidgin
  3. Greenlandic Eskimo Pidgin
  4. Eskimo Trade Jargon (a.k.a. Herschel Island Eskimo Pidgin, Ship's Jargon)
  5. Mednyj Aleut (a.k.a. Copper Island Aleut, Medniy Aleut, CIA)
  6. Haida Jargon
  7. Chinook Jargon
  8. Nootka Jargon
  9. Broken Slavey (a.k.a. Slavey Jargon, Broken Slavé)
  10. Kutenai Jargon
  11. Loucheux Jargon (a.k.a. Jargon Loucheux)
  12. Inuktitut-English Pidgin
  13. Michif (a.k.a. French Cree, Métis, Metchif, Mitchif, Métchif)
  14. Broken Oghibbeway (a.k.a. Broken Ojibwa)
  15. Basque-Algonquian Pidgin (a.k.a. Micmac-Basque Pidgin, Souriquois)
  16. Montagnais Pidgin Basque (a.k.a. Pidgin Basque-Montagnais)
  17. American Indian Pidgin English
  18. Delaware Jargon (a.k.a. Pidgin Delaware)
  19. Pidgin Massachusett
  20. Jargonized Powhatan
  21. Ocaneechi
  22. Lingua Franca Creek
  23. Lingua Franca Apalachee
  24. Mobilian Jargon (a.k.a. Mobilian Trade Jargon, Chickasaw-Chocaw Trade Language, Yamá)
  25. Güegüence-Nicarao
  26. Carib Pidgin (a.k.a. Ndjuka-Amerindian Pidgin, Ndjuka-Trio)
  27. Carib Pidgin-Arawak Mixed Language
  28. Guajiro-Spanish
  29. Media Lengua
  30. Catalangu
  31. Callahuaya (a.k.a. Machaj-Juyai, Kallawaya, Collahuaya, Pohena)
  32. Nheengatú (a.k.a. Lingua Geral Amazônica, Lingua Boa, Lingua Brasílica, Lingua Geral do Norte)
  33. Lingua Geral do Sul (a.k.a. Lingua Geral Paulista, Tupí Austral)

Unattested languages

Several languages are only known by mention in a historical document or from only a few names or words. It cannot be determined that these languages actually existed or that the few recorded words are actually of known or unknown languages. Some may simply be from a historian's errors. Others are of known people with no linguistic record (sometimes due to lost records). A short list is below.

Linguistic areas

The languages of the Americas often can be grouped together into linguistic areas or Sprachbunds (also known as convergence areas). The linguistic areas identified so far deserve more research to determine their validity, and also to help differentiate between shared areal traits and true genetic relationship. The following tentative list of linguistic areas is based on primarily Campbell (1997):

External Links


Other classification schemes can be seen here: Classification schemes for Native American languages.

See also: Language families and languages, Classification of Native Americans, Native American.

Bibilography

  • Boas, Franz. (1911). Handbook of American Indian languages (Vol. 1). Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 40. Washington: Government Print Office (Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology).
  • Boas, Franz. (1922). Handbook of American Indian languages (Vol. 2). Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 40. Washington: Government Print Office (Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology).
  • Boas, Franz. (1929). Classification of American Indian languages. Language, 5, 1-7.
  • Boas, Franz. (1933). Handbook of American Indian languages (Vol. 3). Native American legal materials collection, title 1227. Glückstadt: J.J. Augustin.
  • Bright, William. (1973). North American Indian language contact. In T. A. Sebeok (Ed.), Linguistics in North America (part 1, pp. 713-726). Current trends in linguistics (Vol. 10). The Hauge: Mouton.
  • Bright, William. (1984). The classification of North American and Meso-American Indian languages. In W. Bright (Ed.), American Indian linguistics and literature (pp. 3-29). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Bright, William (Ed.). (1984). American Indian linguistics and literature. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3-1100-9846-6.
  • Brinton, Daniel G. (1891). The American race. New York: D. C. Hodges.
  • Campbell, Lyle. (1997). American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
  • Campbell, Lyle; & Mithun, Marianne (Eds.). (1979). The languages of native America: Historical and comparative assessment. Austin: University of Texas Press.
  • Goddard, Ives (Ed.). (1996). Languages. Handbook of North American Indians (W. C. Sturtevant, General Ed.) (Vol. 17). Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 0-1604-8774-9.
  • Goddard, Ives. (1999). Native languages and language families of North America (rev. and enlarged ed. with additions and corrections). [Map]. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press (Smithsonian Institute). (Updated version of the map in Goddard 1996). ISBN 0-8032-9271-6.
  • Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (Ed.). (2005). Ethnologue: Languages of the world (15th ed.). Dallas, TX: SIL International. ISBN 1-55671-159-X. (Online version: http://www.ethnologue.com).
  • Kaufman, Terrence. (1990). Language history in South America: What we know and how to know more. In D. L. Payne (Ed.), Amazonian linguistics: Studies in lowland South American languages (pp. 13-67). Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-2927-0414-3.
  • Kaufman, Terrence. (1994). The native languages of South America. In C. Mosley & R. E. Asher (Eds.), Atlas of the world's languages (pp. 46-76). London: Routledge.
  • Key, Mary R. (1979). The grouping of South American languages. Tübingen: Gunter Narr Verlag.
  • Loukotka, Čestmír. (1968). Classification of South American Indian languages. Los Angeles: Latin American Studies Center, University of California.
  • Mason, J. Alden. (1950). The languages of South America. In J. Steward (Ed.), Handbook of South American Indians (Vol. 6, pp. 157-317). Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology bulletin (No. 143). Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.
  • Migliazza, Ernest C.; & Campbell, Lyle. (1988). Panorama general de las lenguas indígenas en América. Historia general de América (Vol. 10). Caracas: Instituto Panamericano de Geografía e Historia.
  • Mithun, Marianne. (1999). The languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23228-7 (hbk); ISBN 0-521-29875-X.
  • Powell, John W. (1891). Indian linguistic families of America north of Mexico. Seventh annual report, Bureau of American Ethnology (pp. 1-142). Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. (Reprinted in P. Holder (Ed.), 1966, Introduction to Handbook of American Indian languages by Franz Boas and Indian linguistic families of America, north of Mexico, by J. W. Powell, Lincoln: University of Nebraska).
  • Powell, John W. (1915). Linguistic families of American Indians north of Mexico by J. W. Powell, revised by members of the staff of the Bureau of American Ethnology. (Map). Bureau of American Ethnology miscellaneous publication (No. 11). Baltimore: Hoen.
  • Rowe, John H. (1954). Linguistics classification problems in South America. In M. B. Emeneau (Ed.), Papers from the symposium on American Indian linguistics (pp. 10-26). University of California publications in linguistics (Vol. 10). Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Sapir, Edward. (1929). Central and North American languages. In The encyclopædia britannica: A new survey of universal knowledge (14 ed.) (Vol. 5, pp. 138-141). London: The Encyclopædia Britannica Company, Ltd.
  • Sebeok, Thomas A. (Ed.). (1973). Linguistics in North America (parts 1 & 2). Current trends in linguistics (Vol. 10). The Hauge: Mouton. (Reprinted as Sebeok 1976).
  • Sebeok, Thomas A. (Ed.). (1976). Native languages of the Americas. New York: Plenum.
  • Sherzer, Joel. (1973). Areal linguistics in North America. In T. A. Sebeok (Ed.), Linguistics in North America (part 2, pp. 749-795). Current trends in linguistics (Vol. 10). The Hauge: Mouton. (Reprinted in Sebeok 1976).
  • Sherzer, Joel. (1976). An areal-typological study of American Indian languages north of Mexico. Amsterdam: North-Holland.
  • Sturtevant, William C. (Ed.). (1978-present). Handbook of North American Indians (Vol. 1-20). Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution. (Vols. 1-3, 16, 18-20 not yet published).
  • Voegelin, Carl F.; & Voegelin, Florence M. (1965). Classification of American Indian languages. Languages of the world, Native American fasc. 2, sec. 1.6). Anthropological Linguistics, 7 (7): 121-150.
  • Voegelin, Carl F.; & Voegelin, Florence M. (1977). Classification and index of the world's languages. Amsterdam: Elsevier. ISBN 0-4440-0155-7.de:Indigene Amerikanische Sprachen

es:Lenguas amerindias fr:Langues amérindiennes nl:Amerindische talen zh:印第安语 sv:Indianspråk

Navigation

Academic Kids Menu

  • Art and Cultures
    • Art (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Art)
    • Architecture (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Architecture)
    • Cultures (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Cultures)
    • Music (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Music)
    • Musical Instruments (http://academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/List_of_musical_instruments)
  • Biographies (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Biographies)
  • Clipart (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Clipart)
  • Geography (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Geography)
    • Countries of the World (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Countries)
    • Maps (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Maps)
    • Flags (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Flags)
    • Continents (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Continents)
  • History (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/History)
    • Ancient Civilizations (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Ancient_Civilizations)
    • Industrial Revolution (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Industrial_Revolution)
    • Middle Ages (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Middle_Ages)
    • Prehistory (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Prehistory)
    • Renaissance (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Renaissance)
    • Timelines (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Timelines)
    • United States (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/United_States)
    • Wars (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Wars)
    • World History (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/History_of_the_world)
  • Human Body (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Human_Body)
  • Mathematics (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Mathematics)
  • Reference (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Reference)
  • Science (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Science)
    • Animals (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Animals)
    • Aviation (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Aviation)
    • Dinosaurs (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Dinosaurs)
    • Earth (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Earth)
    • Inventions (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Inventions)
    • Physical Science (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Physical_Science)
    • Plants (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Plants)
    • Scientists (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Scientists)
  • Social Studies (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Social_Studies)
    • Anthropology (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Anthropology)
    • Economics (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Economics)
    • Government (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Government)
    • Religion (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Religion)
    • Holidays (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Holidays)
  • Space and Astronomy
    • Solar System (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Solar_System)
    • Planets (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Planets)
  • Sports (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Sports)
  • Timelines (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Timelines)
  • Weather (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Weather)
  • US States (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/US_States)

Information

  • Home Page (http://academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php)
  • Contact Us (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Contactus)

  • Clip Art (http://classroomclipart.com)
Toolbox
Personal tools