Advertisement

Northumberland

From Academic Kids

Northumberland
Missing image
EnglandNorthumberland.png
Image:EnglandNorthumberland.png

Geography
Status:Ceremonial & Administrative County
Region:North East England
Area:
- Total
- Admin. council
Ranked 6th
5,013 km²
Ranked 6th
Admin HQ:Morpeth
ISO 3166-2:GB-NBL
ONS code:35
NUTS 3:UKC21
Demographics
Population:
- Total (2003 est.)
- Density
- Admin. council
Ranked 44th
309,237
62 / km²
Ranked 33rd
Ethnicity:99.0% White
Politics
Northumberland County Council
http://www.northumberland.gov.uk/
Executive:Labour
MPs:Peter Atkinson
Alan Beith
Ronnie Campbell
Denis Murphy
Districts
Image:NorthumberlandNumbered.png
  1. Blyth Valley
  2. Wansbeck
  3. Castle Morpeth
  4. Tynedale
  5. Alnwick
  6. Berwick-upon-Tweed
For other places with this name, see Northumberland

Northumberland is a county in England, on the border with Scotland.

The county's largest boundaries extended from the river Humber in the south, to the Forth in the North, as the kingdom of Northumbria under King Edwin. At present, however, the county covers a much smaller area. Until 1974 it included Newcastle-upon-Tyne, the traditional county town of Northumberland, but that is now part of Tyne and Wear. The county town is now Morpeth.

For some purposes, particularly wildlife recording and many sporting organisations, the 1974 boundary changes are not followed, retaining Newcastle-upon-Tyne and North Tyneside within Northumberland. The official county borders on Tyne and Wear, County Durham, Cumbria and the Lieutenancy area of Roxburgh, Ettrick and Lauderdale in Scotland.

Contents

History

Main article: History of Northumberland.

Once part of the Roman Empire and the scene of many wars between England and Scotland, Northumberland has a long and complicated history. This explains the many castles in Northumberland, including among the better-known those at Bamburgh, Dunstanburgh, Warkworth and Alnwick - see Castles in England for a full list.

Northumberland is called the "cradle of Christianity" in England because it was on Lindisfarne, a tidal island north of Bamburgh, also called Holy Island, that Christianity flourished when monks from Iona were sent to convert the English, and set up camp there. Lindisfarne was also the home of the Lindisfarne Gospels (presently situated in the British Library, London) and also of Saint Cuthbert who is buried at Durham Cathedral.

Bamburgh Castle is the historic capital of Northumberland, the "royal" castle from before the unification of England under one monarch. The capital of Northumberland now, however, may be thought to be the market town of Alnwick, mainly because the Duke of Northumberland has his home there; or may be thought of as Morpeth, since Northumberland County Council's offices are in that town.

Northumberland has a history of revolt and rebellion against the government, as seen in the Pilgrimage of Grace and the Rising of the North in Tudor times. These revolts were usually led by the then Dukes of Northumberland, the Percy family. Most of these Dukes would betray their comrades in whatever rebellion they were leading, give the information to the government, and get away scot-free. Shakespeare mentions one of the Percys, Harry Hotspur. The county was also a centre for Catholicism in England, as well as of Jacobite feelings after the Restoration. Northumberland became a sort of wild county, where outlaws and border reivers hid from the law, as it was largely rural and unpopulated. However, after the union of the crowns of Scotland and England under King James VI and I, Northumberland became much more peaceful, though it still had its moments.

Today Northumberland is still largely rural - the least populated county in Britain - and no longer commands any sort of power in British affairs. Its power was largely derived from the border conflicts, as the Lords of the Marches were entrusted with making sure England was not invaded by the Scots, and so became powerful. At present there is a movement to attract tourism to Northumberland, by pointing out the beauty of the scenery - coastal and rural - and the many castles and the important role Northumberland played in English history. Nowhere is this more to be seen than on Lindisfarne. Attempts to raise the level of awareness of Northumbrian culture to that of Scottish culture have also started, with the formation of a Northumbrian Language Society to preserve the unique dialects (Pitmatic and Northumbrian) of this region, as well as to promote home-grown talent.

People

Famous Northumbrians include:

Missing image
Commoneider01.jpg
The Eider Duck is the Northumberland county bird, sacred to Northumberland's
patron saint St. Cuthbert

Settlements

These are the main towns in Northumberland, for a complete list of settlements see list of places in Northumberland.

Places of interest


United Kingdom | England | Ceremonial counties of England Flag of England

Bedfordshire | Berkshire | City of Bristol | Buckinghamshire | Cambridgeshire | Cheshire | Cornwall | Cumbria | Derbyshire | Devon | Dorset | Durham | East Riding of Yorkshire | East Sussex | Essex | Gloucestershire | Greater London | Greater Manchester | Hampshire | Herefordshire | Hertfordshire | Isle of Wight | Kent | Lancashire | Leicestershire | Lincolnshire | City of London | Merseyside | Norfolk | Northamptonshire | Northumberland | North Yorkshire | Nottinghamshire | Oxfordshire | Rutland | Shropshire | Somerset | South Yorkshire | Staffordshire | Suffolk | Surrey | Tyne and Wear | Warwickshire | West Midlands | West Sussex | West Yorkshire | Wiltshire | Worcestershire

de:Northumberland eo:Northumberland es:Northumberland ja:ノーサンバーランド (イングランド) no:Northumberland sv:Northumberland

Navigation

Academic Kids Menu

  • Art and Cultures
    • Art (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Art)
    • Architecture (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Architecture)
    • Cultures (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Cultures)
    • Music (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Music)
    • Musical Instruments (http://academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/List_of_musical_instruments)
  • Biographies (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Biographies)
  • Clipart (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Clipart)
  • Geography (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Geography)
    • Countries of the World (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Countries)
    • Maps (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Maps)
    • Flags (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Flags)
    • Continents (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Continents)
  • History (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/History)
    • Ancient Civilizations (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Ancient_Civilizations)
    • Industrial Revolution (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Industrial_Revolution)
    • Middle Ages (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Middle_Ages)
    • Prehistory (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Prehistory)
    • Renaissance (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Renaissance)
    • Timelines (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Timelines)
    • United States (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/United_States)
    • Wars (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Wars)
    • World History (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/History_of_the_world)
  • Human Body (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Human_Body)
  • Mathematics (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Mathematics)
  • Reference (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Reference)
  • Science (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Science)
    • Animals (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Animals)
    • Aviation (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Aviation)
    • Dinosaurs (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Dinosaurs)
    • Earth (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Earth)
    • Inventions (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Inventions)
    • Physical Science (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Physical_Science)
    • Plants (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Plants)
    • Scientists (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Scientists)
  • Social Studies (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Social_Studies)
    • Anthropology (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Anthropology)
    • Economics (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Economics)
    • Government (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Government)
    • Religion (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Religion)
    • Holidays (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Holidays)
  • Space and Astronomy
    • Solar System (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Solar_System)
    • Planets (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Planets)
  • Sports (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Sports)
  • Timelines (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Timelines)
  • Weather (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Weather)
  • US States (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/US_States)

Information

  • Home Page (http://academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php)
  • Contact Us (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Contactus)

  • Clip Art (http://classroomclipart.com)
Toolbox
Personal tools