Physical layer

From Academic Kids

OSI Model
7Application layer
6Presentation layer
5Session layer
4Transport layer
3Network layer
2Data link layer
1Physical layer

The physical layer is level one in the seven level OSI model of computer networking. It performs services requested by the data link layer.

This level refers to network hardware, physical cabling or a wireless electromagnetic connection. It also deals with electrical specifications, collision control and other low-level functions.

The physical layer is the most basic network layer, providing only the means of transmitting raw bits. The shapes of the electrical connectors, what frequencies to broadcast at, and similar low-level things are specified here. An analogy of this layer in a physical mail network would be a specification for various kinds of paper and ink, for example.

The major functions and services performed by the physical layer are:

  • establishment and termination of a connection to a communications medium;
  • participation in the process whereby the communication resources are effectively shared among multiple users, e.g., contention resolution and flow control;
  • conversion between the representation of digital data in user equipment and the corresponding signals transmitted over a communications channel.

Physical signaling sublayer

In a local area network (LAN) or a metropolitan area network (MAN) using open systems interconnection (OSI) architecture, the Physical signaling sublayer is the portion of the physical layer that:

Source: from Federal Standard 1037C

Examples

See also

fr:Couche physique it:Livello fisico zh:物理层

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