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Pomerania

From Academic Kids

10-field Pomeranian coats of arms in 15th–17th centuries

Pomerania (Polish: Pomorze, German: Pommern and Pommerellen, Pomeranian (Kashubian): Pņmņrze and Pņmņrskō, Latin: Pomerania, Pomorania) is a geographical and historical region in northern Poland and Germany on the south coasts of the Baltic Sea between and on both sides of the Vistula and Oder (Odra) rivers, reaching the Reknitz river in the west.

Polish Pomerania is currently divided into 3 voivodships: the West Pomeranian Voivodship (Zachodniopomorskie, ZP), Pomeranian Voivodship (Pomorskie, PM) and the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodship (Kujawsko-Pomorskie, KP). German Pomerania (Vorpommern) is part of the German Bundesland (federal state) of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania).

The history of the region is rich and varied, perhaps due to it having been under the rule of many different powers through the centuries, as all of Europe. Since 1181 until 1806 Pomerania was a part of the Holy Roman Empire and was ruled as imperial fiefs by the Dukes of Pomerania, kings of Poland, Denmark, Saxony, Brandenburg, Prussia, Sweden. With the split of the HRE into Austrian and German Empire Pomerania was a part of Germany. In 1945 Pomerania came under Soviet occupation.

Contents

Origin and meaning of the name

The name is a Pomeranian translation of 'longum mare' and means 'country by/next to/along the sea'

The name was probably first mentioned as Latin words 'longum mare' (=along the sea) in an obscure church record of around 1080), called the Dagome Iudex, but supposedly dealing with 992. It names Oda von Haldensleben and her husband as Dagome, which is assumed to refer to Mieszko I, referring to territory Dagome gave as gift to the pope. In an imperial record of 1046 there is an actual first mention of Pomerania as Zemuzil dux Bomeranorum (Siemomysl, Duke of Pomeranians). From then on Pomerania is mentioned many times in the chronicles by Adam of Bremen (ca. 1070) and Gallus Anonymous (ca. 1113).

Historically Pomerania was known as Vor-Pommern and Hinter-Pommern and the most easterly part as Pommerellia, or Pomerellia, bordering and overlapping with Westprussia.

Under Polish administration a number of several different voivodships all using the name Pomerania have been established.

Demographics

VoivodshipCapitals Registration platesArea
w km²
Population
Polish(Dec 31st of 1999)
German 2001
territorial code
Kuyavian-Pomeranian VoivodshipBydgoszcz¹
Torun²
C 17.969,722.100.77104
Pomeranian VoivodshipGdanskG 18.292,882.192.26822
West Pomeranian VoivodshipSzczecinZ 22.901,481.732.83832
(¹) - the site of the Voivod office, (²) - the site of the Voivod council
Polish Pomerania total 59.164,086.025.877
NordvorpommernGrimmenNPV 2.168117.722
OstvorpommernAnklamOVP 1.910113.623
RügenBergen 97474.400
Uecker-RandowPasewalkUER 1.62483.459
Demmin (district)DemminDM 1.92193.700
GreifswaldHGW 52,252.984
StralsundHST est. 52,260.000
German Pomerania total 8.701595.888
The biggest cities are (with population figures for 1999):
  • in Polish Pomerania
    • Tricity metropolitan area (population(2001): 1035,000 area 1,332,51 km² ) including

Geography

Pomerania is the area along the Baltic Sea between the Vistula, Notec, Warta and Odra rivers. The islands of Uznam, Wolin and Rugen lay along the Pomeranian coast, while the Hel peninsula and the Vistula peninsula jut out into the Baltic.

The Baltic forms the Bay of Pomerania, Szczecin Bay, Gdansk Bay with Bay of Puck, and Vistula Bay along the coast. Lakes Lebsko, Jamno and Gardno were formerly bays but have been cut off from the sea.

Prehistoric times

The Pomeranians are first mentioned around the year 1000 AD.

The territory of northern Germania, as it was recorded 2000 years ago was covered with ice and did not start to recede until the late period of Old Stone Age or Paleolithic some 10.000 years BC, when the Scandinavian glacier receded to the north. Various archeological cultures developed in the Mesolith, Neolith, Bronze Age and Iron Age.

History of Pomerania

Modern 20th Century divisions of Pomerania

The eastern part of Pomerania, Pomorze, is a geographical and historical region in Poland that encompasses three Polish voivodships: the West Pomeranian Voivodship (Zachodniopomorskie), Pomeranian Voivodship (Pomorskie) and the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodship (Kujawsko-Pomorskie). The most western part of Pomerania (Vorpommern, in Polish Zapomorze) is part of the German state (Bundesland) of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern).

See also

Further reading

Publications in Polish

  • Gerard Labuda (ed.), Historia Pomorza, vol. I (to 1466), parts 1-2, Poznań 1969
  • Gerard Labuda (ed.), Historia Pomorza, vol. II (1466–1815), parts 1-2, Poznań 1976
  • Gerard Labuda (ed.), Historia Pomorza, vol. III (1815–1850), parts 1-3, Poznań
  • Gerard Labuda (ed.), Historia Pomorza, vol. IV (1850–1918), part 1, Toruń 2003
  • Marian Biskup (ed.), Śląsk i Pomorze w historii stosunków polsko-niemieckich w średniowieczu. XII Konferencja Wspólnej Komisji Podręcznikowej PRL-RFN Historyków 5–10 VI 1979 Olsztyn, Instytut Zachdni, Poznań 1987
  • Antoni Czubiński, Zbigniew Kulak (ed.), Śląsk i Pomorze w stosunkach polsko-niemieckich od XVI do XVII w. XIV Konferencja Wspólnej Komisji Podręcznikowej PRL-RFN Historyków, 9–14 VI 1981 r. Zamość, Instytut Zachodni, Poznań 1987
  • Szkice do dziejów Pomorza, vol. 1-3, Warszawa 1958-61
  • B. Wachowiak, Rozwój gospodarczo-społeczny Pomorza Zachodniego od połowy XV do początku XVII wieku, Studia i Materiały do dziejów Wielkopolski i Pomorza, 1958, z. 1
  • J. Wiśniewski, Początki układu kapitalistycznego na Pomorzu Zachodnim w XVIII wieku, Studia i Materiały do dziejów Wielkopolski i Pomorza, 1958, z. 1
  • A. Wielopolski, Gospodarka Pomorza Zachodniego w latach 1800–1918, Szczecin 1959
  • W. Odyniec, Dzieje Prus Królewskich (1454–1772). Zarys monograficzny, Warszawa 1972
  • Dzieje Pomorza Nadwiślańskiego od VII wieku do 1945 roku, Gdańsk 1978
  • Zygmunt Boras, "Książęta Pomorza Zachodniego", Poznań 1969, 1978, 1996
  • Zygmunt Boras, "Stosunki polsko-pomorskie w XVI w", Poznań 1965
  • Zygmunt Boras, "Związki Śląska i Pomorza Zachdoniego z Polską w XVI wieku", Poznań 1981
  • Kazimierz Kozłowski, Jerzy Podralski, "Poczet Książąt Pomorza Zachodniego", KAW, Szczecin 1985
  • Lech Bądkowski, W. Samp. "Poczet książąt Pomorza Gdańskiego", Gdańsk 1974
  • B. Śliwiński, "Poczet książąt gdańskich", Gdańsk 1997
  • Wojciech Myślenicki, "Pomorscy sprzymierzenscy Jagiellończyków", Wydawnictwo Poznańskie, Poznań 1979
  • Józef Spors, "Podziały administracyjne Pomorza Gdańskiego i Sławieńsko-Słupskiego od XII do początków XIV w", Słupsk 1983
  • Kazimierz Ślaski, "Podziały terytorialne Pomorza w XII-XII w.", Poznań 1960
  • Benon Miśkiewicz, "Z dziejów wojennych Pomorza Zachodniego. Cedynia 972-Siekierki 1945", Wydawnictwo Poznańskie, Poznań 1972

Publications in German

  • M. Wehrmann, Geschichte von Pommern, vol. 1-2, Gotha 1919-21
  • M. Spahn, Verfassungs- und Wirtshaftsgeschichte des Herzogtums Pommern von 1476 bis 1625, Leipzig 1896
  • B. Schumacher, Geschichte Ost- und Westpreussens, Wurzburg 1959

External links

Internet directories

Culture and history

Maps of Pomerania

de:Pommern es:Pomerania fr:Poméranie csb:Pņmņrskō nl:Pommeren nds:Pommern ja:ポモージェ no:Pommern pl:Pomorze sv:Pommern

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