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Qingdao

From Academic Kids

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Qingdao Template:Audio (Template:Zh-stpw; Postal System Pinyin: Tsingtao) is a port sub-provincial city in the Shandong province of China, a naval base, and a major industrial city located at the southern tip of the Shandong Peninsula, in Jiaozhou Bay, facing the Yellow Sea, at 11930′-12100′E;3535′-3709′N. In 2002 the population of the prefecture-level city jurisdiction area was around 7.1 million.


青岛
Qingdao, Shandong
Abbreviation: 胶 (pinyin: Jiāo) or 青 (Qing)
Missing image
Qingdao_Shandong.png
Image:Qingdao_Shandong.png

Origin of Name青 - Natural blue
岛 - Island
Seat of Government Shinan District
Area 10,654 km²
Population
 - Total (2002)
 - Density
Ranked 1st
7.105 Million
666.88/km²
GDP in RMB
 - Total (2003)
 - per capita
Ranked 1st
177.35 billion
26961
info pending
Administration Type Sub-provincial city
CPC Qingdao Committee SecretaryDu Shicheng
MayorXia Geng
County-level divisions12
Township-level divisions?
Postal Code266000-266400
Area Code532
License Plate Prefix鲁B
Contents

Additional Names

  • Formerly known as Jiao'ao (胶澳).
  • Qindao (Traditional Chinese: 琴島, Simplified Chinese 琴岛, literally: "stringed instrument isle") is an additional modern Chinese name for the area which according to locals refers to the shape of the coastline.

Geography and Climate

Qingdao is located at the southern tip of the Shandong Peninsula. It borders three prefecture-level cities, namely Yantai to the northeast, Weifang to the west, and Rizhao to the southwest. The city's total jurisdiction area occupies 10 654 km². The city is located in flatlands, with mountains spurring up nearby. The highest elevation in the area is 1133 m above sea level. The city has a 730.64-kilometer coastline. Five significant rivers that flow for more than 50 km can be found in the region.

Qingdao enjoys mild summers and relatively warm winters, with the average July temperature at 23.8°C and the average January temperature at -0.7°C. The city gets most rain in June and July, at an average of 150 mm.

History

German map of Qingdao, 1912
Enlarge
German map of Qingdao, 1912

The area of which Qingdao is located today was called Jiao'ao (胶澳) when it was administered by the Qing Dynasty. In 1891, the Qing Government decided to make the area a primary defence base against naval attacks. Thus began the construction of the city of Qingdao. The city became a German concession in 1897 under a forced invasion and became a major German naval base in the Far East. This caused a great area of German influence within the whole of Shandong Province. After a British naval attack on the German colony, Japan occupied it in 1914 with British encouragement, after Japan had declared war on Germany during World War I. The city reverted to Chinese Kuomintang (the ROC) rule in 1922. Renamed Qingdao in 1930, the city became a special administrative zone of the ROC Government. Japan re-occupied Qingdao in 1938 with its plans of territorial expansion onto China's coast. After World War II the KMT allowed Qingdao to serve as the headquarters of the Western Pacific Fleet of the US Navy. On June 2nd, 1949, the CPC-led Red Army entered Qingdao.

Since 1984 and China's open-door policy to foreign trade and investment, Qingdao has developed quickly as a modern port city, and is now the headquarters of the Chinese navy's northern fleet.

Missing image
Qingdao-map-1906.jpg
Sketch map of Qingdao (not to scale), circa 1906.

Demographics

By the end of 2002, Qingdao is estimated to be the home for more than 7 million inhabitants, of which around 2.6 million is residing in the Qingdao urban area. Another estimated 2.3 million reside in other cities under Qingdao's jurisdiction. The annual number of births is calculated around 82,000, with a birth rate of 11.26/1000 population, and a death rate of 6.93/1000 population, both calculated on an annual basis. This results to a 4.33/1000 population growth rate overall. Living standards are among the leading Chinese cities, with relatively high incomes for families.

Qingdao is home to 38 ethnic minorities, albeit very insignificantly, with minority population only totalling around 10 thousand by 2000, 0.14% of the city's total population.  


Economy

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Qingdao.jpg
Evening Skyline of QingDao.

Qingdao is perhaps most famously known for the Tsingtao Brewery, which German settlers founded in 1903, and which produces Tsingtao beer, now the most famous beer in China and known worldwide.

In 1984 the Chinese government named a district of Qingdao a Special Economic and Technology Development Zone (SETDZ). Along with this district, the entire city had gone through amazing development of secondary and tertiary industries. As an important trading port in the province, Qingdao flourishes with foreign investment and international trade. Especially, South Korea and Japan made extensive investment in the city. At least 30,000 South Korean nationals reside there. Construction is at a relatively fast pace in Qingdao. Famous corporations include Haier.

In terms of primary industry, Qingdao has an estimated 50,000 acres (200 km²) of arable land. Qingdao has a zig-zagging pattern coastline, thus possesses an invaluable stock of fish, shrimp, and other sea resources. Qingdao is also home to a variety of mineral resources, up to thirty different kinds have been mined. Qingdao's wind power electricity generation is among the best performance levels in the region.

The GDP per capita comprised 26961 (ca. US$3260) in 2003, giving it a ranking of 32nd among 659 Chinese cities. The GDP has grown steadily at an average pace of 14% annually.

Transportation

The Orient Ferry connect Qingdao with Shimonoseki, Japan, and there are numerous smaller ferried connecting Qingdao with Korea.

The Qingdao International Airport is 36km away from city center and is served by 13 domestic and international airlines, operating 58 routes of which 10 are international and regional. It is estimated that in 2002 over 2.3 million people, including 450,000 international travelers, were transported in and out of the airport.

Qingdao is home to one of China's largest seaports. Cooperative relations have been established with 450 ports in 130 countries worldwide. The 1999 annual cargo handling capacity was 72 million tons, exported commodities were more than 35 million tons and 1.5 million TEUs.

Qingdao's railway development was picked up during the late 90's. At the present, domestic rail lines connect Qingdao with Lanzhou, Chengdu, Xi'an, Zhengzhou, Jinan and Jining. There are a total of 1,145km of roads in the Qingdao area, with nearly 500km of expressways. Expressways connect Qingdao with Jinan.

Culture

Through the unique architecture in some parts of Qingdao, one can draw the inference that the city is a cultural combination of east and west. Most people who reside in the Qingdao urban area speak Mandarin Chinese, with a significant portion speaking the Shandong dialect. Cuisine is predominantly Lu Cai, the Shandong regional dishes. The area's most famous festival is the Qingdao International Beer Festival, held annually since 1991.

Tourism

Missing image
Qingdao-panorama.gif
Panorama of Qingdao, taken from Little Fish Hill

Qingdao attracts many tourists due to its seaside setting and excellent weather. Parks, beaches and sculpture -- as well as some unique architecture -- line the shore. Qingdao's major attractions include:

Education

Educational institutions in Qingdao include:

Sports

Qingdao has long been a hub of professional sports in China. Clubs include:

Along with Beijing's winning bid to host the 2008 Summer Olympics, Qingdao will be the site for sailing events. These events will be held in Fushan Bay, near the city's central business district. A hotel and an international broadcasting center are under construction.

External links

Template:Shandongde:Tsingtao fr:Qingdaoja:青島 zh:青岛 pl:Cingtao

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