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Rumors about the September 11, 2001 attacks

From Academic Kids

Sept. 11, 2001 attacks
Timeline
Background history
Planning
September 11, 2001
Rest of September
October
Aftermath
Victims
Casualties
Missing people
Survivors
Foreign casualties
Rescue workers
Hijacked Airlines
American Airlines Flight 11
United Airlines Flight 175
American Airlines Flight 77
United Airlines Flight 93
Sites of destruction
World Trade Center
The Pentagon
Shanksville
Effects
Government response
World political effects
World economic effects
Airport security
Closings and cancellations
Audiovisual entertainment
Response
Rescue and recovery effort
Financial assistance
Memorials and services
Perpetrators
Responsibility
Organizers
Miscellaneous
Communication
Slogans and terms
Misinformation and rumors
Opportunists
Inquiries
U.S. Congress Inquiry
9/11 Commission
Template:Message box

Rumors about the September 11, 2001 attacks began circulating almost immediately after the September 11, 2001 attacks. The dramatic events of the day filled many people with a sense of uncertainty, and what had previously seemed unimaginable to many had become a reality. In this environment, many rumors began to spread. In addition, many people hungered to find meaning in the apparently meaningless violent attacks. For all these reasons, dozens of rumors began to spread.

Contents

1.1 Claims that Saddam Hussein and Iraq were involved in the attacks.
1.2 Claims of Kashmiri responsibility
1.3 Claims of World Trade Center survivors after September 13
1.4 Claims that approximately 10,000 people died in the September 11 attacks
1.5 Claim that over 130 Israelis died in the September 11 attacks
1.6 Claim that over 250 Indians died in the September 11 attacks
1.7 Claim that "hundreds" of British citizens died in the September 11 attacks
1.8 Claim of an alleged Nostradamus prediction
1.9 Rumors of a passing UFO
1.10 Claim that President Bush masterminded the attacks to delay NESARA announcement
1.11 Claim that a tourist had a photograph taken of himself on top of the north tower seconds before plane struck
1.12 Claims that Osama bin Laden owns part or all of Snapple soft-drinks and Citibank
1.13 Claims that September 11's events generated a baby boom
1.14 Warnings to avoid malls on October 31
1.15 Claims that Mohammed Atta was a known terrorist
1.16 Claims that Oliver North warned about Osama Bin Laden
1.17 Rumors of celebrating Arab-Americans
1.18 The Americans Radio Editorial
1.19 Claim that 4,000 Israeli/Jewish employees skipped work at the WTC on September 11
1.20 Claims of an Israeli conspiracy to frame Arabs
1.21 Claim that Sharon stayed away because of a Shabak warning
1.22 Claims of a "credible threat" against Bush
1.23 Claims that the towers were blown up with explosives
1.24 Claims that the Pentagon was not hit by a Boeing 757

1.25 Claims that US military aircraft shot down Flight 93 to stop it reaching Washington
1.26 Claims that Bush knew of the attacks in advance
1.27 Reports that Zacarias Moussaoui was the '20th hijacker'
1.28 Claims that the hijackers took control of the aircraft solely with box cutters
1.29 Claims that the attackers planned to use crop-dusters for a biological or chemical attack
1.30 Claims that supporters of the attacks profited on airline stocks
1.31 Osama and "Evil Bert"
1.32 The smoke demon
1.33 Parallel War Games
1.34 Hidden images on the $20 bill
1.35 False fundraising
1.36 Five Israelis were filming the event
1.37 Claims of other Attacks on 9/11/2001

List of Rumors

Claims that Saddam Hussein and Iraq were involved in the attacks.

Critics of the Bush Administration have argued that the US Government strongly implied that Iraq was involved in the attacks, in order to whip up public support for an attack on Iraq. Polls have shown that as much as 60% of the US public has at one time believed that Hussein was involved, and that this percentage has been higher for those who support President Bush and consider themselves Republicans. Given these numbers, the "Iraq connection" is the most widely held false conspiracy theory regarding the 9/11 attacks, as well as the one that is most relevant to public policy.

Despite initial statements by the Bush administration to the contrary, no evidence has been seen publicly linking Iraq to the attacks. The two captured planners of the attacks, Ramzi Binalshibh and Khalid Shaikh Mohammed, have reportedly denied Iraqi involvement. Other assertions, such as one claim that Atta met with an Iraqi agent in Prague, have either been disproven or discounted.

The 9/11 Commission Report states on page 335 that Paul Wolfowitz had pressed the administration to invade Iraq just days after the attacks. "Secretary Colin Powell recalled that Wolfowitz--not Rumsfeld--argued that Iraq was ultimately the source of the terrorist problem and should therefore be attacked. [...] He argued that if there was even a 10% chance that Saddam Hussein was behind the 9/11 attack, maximum priority should be placed on eliminating that threat. Wolfowitz contended that the odds were far more than 1 in 10, citing Saddam's praise for the attack, his long record of involvement in terrorism, and theories that Ramzi Yousef was an Iraqi agent and that Iraq was behind the 1993 attack on the World Trade Center." However, the report also notes that Secretary Powell said that the President did not "give Wolfowitz's argument 'much weight'" and that the President "saw Afghanistan as the priority."

The Report also observes that "Condoleezza Rice's chief staffer on Afghanistan, Zalmay Khalilzad, concurred in its [a September 18 memo by Richard Clarke] conclusion that only some anecdotal evidence linked Iraq to al Qaeda."

On page 61, the Report notes that "Bin Laden had in fact been sponsoring anti-Saddam Islamists in Iraqi Kurdistan, and sought to attract them into his Islamic army."

In Chapter 5, the Commission reports that "To Mohammed Atta [leader of the hijacking teams], Saddam Hussein was an American stooge set up to give Washington an excuse to intervene in the Middle East."

Retired General Brent Scowcroft, former National Security Advisor to George H.W. Bush, wrote an essay published in the Wall Street Journal in August 2002 in which he wrote, "Saddam's strategic objective appears to be to dominate the Persian Gulf, to control oil from the region, or both. That clearly poses a real threat to key U.S. interests. But there is scant evidence to tie Saddam to terrorist organizations, and even less to the Sept. 11 attacks. Indeed Saddam's goals have little in common with the terrorists who threaten us, and there is little incentive for him to make common cause with them. [...] There is little evidence to indicate that the United States itself is an object of his aggression. Rather, Saddam's problem with the U.S. appears to be that we stand in the way of his ambitions. He seeks weapons of mass destruction not to arm terrorists, but to deter us from intervening to block his aggressive designs." [1] (http://www.opinionjournal.com/editorial/feature.html?id=110002133)

Claims of Kashmiri responsibility

There were early claims of Kashmiri responsibility for the attacks. These were quickly disproven. It is nearly universally accepted that Kashmiri terrorists played no role in the attacks.

Claims of World Trade Center survivors after September 13

The search for survivors from the wreckage of the World Trade Center continued for weeks, but the search was fruitless. Several reported rescues on September 13 proved to be false. The only persons rescued were some firefighters who became trapped earlier that day in the search and rescue operation. An office worker named Carla Guzman was, however, rescued from the remains of the South Tower on September 12. [2] (http://www.time.com/time/covers/1101020909/asurvivor.html)

Claims that approximately 10,000 people died in the September 11 attacks

The sheer number of casualties and the chaos of the day meant that missing persons lists were greatly inflated. The true total casualty figure of the day was very close to 3,000. The claim of 10,000 came from a variety of sources that proved to be unreliable, especially from early guesses based on the full capacity of the World Trade Center buildings (around 20,000) and the assumption that the evacuation was not as successful as it proved to have been.

Claim that over 130 Israelis died in the September 11 attacks

Early estimates of Israeli deaths, as of the total death toll, proved substantially exaggerated. George W. Bush cited the figure of 130 in his speech (http://www.burbank.com/PresidentBush09202001.shtml) of September 20. In reality, there were a total of 5 Israeli deaths in the attack: Alona Avraham, Leon Lebor, Shay Levinhar, Daniel Lewin, and Haggai Sheffi.

Claim that over 250 Indians died in the September 11 attacks

Early estimates of Indian deaths, as of the total death toll, proved somewhat exaggerated. George W. Bush cited the figure of 250 in his speech (http://www.burbank.com/PresidentBush09202001.shtml) of September 20. In reality, there were a total of 17 Indian deaths in the attack (plus another 100 persons of Indian origin [3] (http://www.outlookindia.com/pti_news.asp?id=82851)).

Claim that "hundreds" of British citizens died in the September 11 attacks

Early estimates of British deaths, as of the total death toll, proved somewhat exaggerated. George W. Bush cited the figure of "hundreds" in his speech (http://www.burbank.com/PresidentBush09202001.shtml) of September 20. In reality, there were a total of 67 British deaths in the attack[4] (http://www.guardian.co.uk/ukresponse/story/0,11017,789635,00.html).

Claim of an alleged Nostradamus prediction

The following text (and variants) began to spread through the Internet within days of the attack:

In the city of god there will be a great thunder,
two brothers torn apart by chaos,
while the fortress endures,
the great leader will succumb.
The third big war will begin when the big city is burning
NOSTRADAMUS 1654

This is not an authentic Nostradamus quatrain. It appears nowhere in his works, and Nostradamus died long before 1654. [5] (http://www.snopes2.com/rumors/predict.htm)

It has since been revealed that this passage made famous in email was originally written by a Canadian student as part of an essay on the open, general and often misleading nature of predictions both by Nostradamus & others. Following the September 11 attacks, the original work appeared and then rocketed around the world in email but was the victim of many well intentioned, but misleading revisions by people who received and then forwarded on the passage.

Rumors of a passing UFO

Soon after the attacks, webpages appeared that claimed to show 'unreleased' stills of a UFO rushing past the towers several seconds after the second plane hit.

Others assert that the object in question may have been a bird flying between the World Trade Center and the camera. And there are some who assert that the object in question may have been a military jet.

Claim that President Bush masterminded the attacks to delay NESARA announcement

Believers in NESARA, The National Economic Stabilization and Recovery Act, claim that it is a secret law passed in the year 2000 with wide reaching effects which would require the resignation of President Bush and other far reaching changes to the government. NESARA supporters believe that the law was scheduled to be announced and implemented on September 11th, 2001, and that Bush carried out the attacks to prevent that announcement.

Claim that a tourist had a photograph taken of himself on top of the north tower seconds before plane struck

An email was circulated which showed a photograph of a tourist on top of the north tower just seconds before American Airlines flight 11 struck it. The view of the northern side of the city, and the American Airlines markings on the plane, are both unmistakable. However, this photograph is beyond any reasonable doubt a hoax. (The picture is shown, and its story discussed, on the snopes.com (http://www.snopes.com/rumors/crash.htm) website.)

There were many initial clues that the photograph was inauthentic. Flight 11 was moving at hundreds of kilometers per hour just before it struck the World Trade Center. At that speed, it ought to have been a blur. Yet the shot of the plane in the photograph is very clear - it almost seems to be stationary in the air. The aircraft pictured is a Boeing 757, while Flight 11 was a Boeing 767. The World Trade Center did not open its observation tower facilities until 09:30 hrs; the plane struck at 08:46 hrs. September 11 was a warm and sunny day in New York City, yet the man is shown wearing a heavy coat and thermal cap, both designed for cold weather. Finally, there was no observation deck on the north tower.

The original picture was taken when a Hungarian named Peter (who wished that his last name be withheld) visited the Towers on November 28, 1997. The original picture without plane and other pictures of Peter can be found on Wired's website (http://www.wired.com/news/gallery/0,2072,48397-2383~2382,00.html). Since then the 'Accidental Tourist' has become an internet phenomenon.

Claims that Osama bin Laden owns part or all of Snapple soft-drinks and Citibank

He does not. Citibank is owned in part by Saudi prince Alwaleed bin Talal, who at some point after the attacks was apparently confused with Osama bin Laden. Bin Talal has no connection with al-Qaeda.

The New York Post reported the Snapple story as part of a general story about the Saudi bin Laden Group owning part of this company. The Chief Executive of Snapple, Michael Weinstein, released a statement denying it.

Claims that September 11's events generated a baby boom

There was no recorded rise in the US birth rate in June 2002, or in any other part of that year.

Warnings to avoid malls on October 31

A number of people across the country received an e-mail chain letter making this warning. It said that an Afghan left a letter to his girlfriend on September 10, 2001, asking her not to take any flights on September 11 and not to go to any shopping mall on Halloween. It was said that the letter is now in the FBI's hands. The letter implied that there is a second phase of the terrorist attacks and the targets will be trick-or-treaters.

The email was traced back to a person named Laura Katsi, who apparently has no first-hand knowledge of the event and regrets passing the note along. The FBI has investigated the matter and took the unusual step of issuing a statement on the hoax, declaring the claim to be unsubstantiated. A few variations on this message are also circulating. [6] (http://dailynews.yahoo.com/h/wtae/20011011/lo/924697_1.html) [7] (http://www.azcentral.com/news/articles/breaking/1011halloweenrumor11%2DON.html) [8] (http://www.snopes2.com/rumors/mallrisk.htm) All of these have been shown to be false.

Claims that Mohammed Atta was a known terrorist

There have been persistent rumors that Mohammed Atta, the suspected leader of the September 11 attacks, was a known terrorist. Reportedly he had bombed an Israeli bus in 1986 and was freed from Israel on insistence by the US as a result of the Oslo Peace Accords. This is incorrect. The bus bomber is the Palestinian Mahmoud Mahmoud Atta. He is a naturalized US citizen and was extradited by the US to Israel in 1990. He was freed after that extradition was held to be invalid by the Israeli supreme court. His whereabouts are unknown. He was 47 years old at the time of the September 11 attack, while Mohammed Atta was 33. [9] (http://www.snopes2.com/rumors/atta.htm) [10] (http://www.jpost.com/Editions/2001/11/07/LatestNews/LatestNews.37713.html)

Claims that Oliver North warned about Osama Bin Laden

There have been claims that former Iran/Contra figure Oliver North issued a warning about Osama bin Laden during testimony in the 1980s to the U.S. Senate. This claim has been circulating via email since shortly after September 11. Oliver North did mention a terrorist during his testimony to the Iran/Contra committee, but the individual he mentioned was Abu Nidal, who has no connection to Bin Laden. The U.S. News and World Report looked into this urban legend and interviewed North himself, whose aides "confirmed the fake. North, in fact, suggests that at the time of the Reagan-era Senate hearings into the scandal, rebels like bin Laden were U.S. friends lined up against Soviet invaders."[11] (http://www.usnews.com/usnews/politics/whispers/november2001.htm) The "Urban Legends" web site also has a page debunking the Oliver North story.[12] (http://www.snopes.com/rumors/north.htm)

Rumors of celebrating Arab-Americans

Claims that certain groups of Arab-Americans celebrated the attacks circulated through e-mail shortly after 9/11. These e-mails included calls to boycott certain businesses, such as Dunkin Donuts, which supposedly had a franchise owned by Arabs. Another rumor is that American Football Hall of Famer, Terry Bradshaw, attacked five Arabs whom he saw celebrating that day. Yet another rumor was that the Lebanese owners of the Middle Eastern restaurant La Shish, in the Detroit suburb of West Bloomfield, were celebrating the attacks on 9/11. These claims are false. More information can be found on a snopes.com page. [13] (http://www.snopes.com/rumors/dunkin.htm)

The Americans Radio Editorial

Following the attacks, an e-mail was widely forwarded purporting to be Canadian journalist Gordon Sinclair's response to September 11. While his stirring denouncement of those who criticize or attack Americans provided great comfort to many who read it, Sinclair -- who died in 1984 -- had in fact written the editorial in 1973, in response to the end of the Vietnam War.

Claim that 4,000 Israeli/Jewish employees skipped work at the WTC on September 11

This claim, made by Al-Manar, has been repeated by a wide variety of other sources, such as Amiri Baraka; see 9/11 conspiracy claims regarding Jews or Israel. The figure "4,000" was probably taken by Al-Manar from a Jerusalem Post article of September 12 (p. 3), which said "The Foreign Ministry in Jerusalem has so far received the names of 4,000 Israelis believed to have been in the areas of the World Trade Center and the Pentagon at the time of the attack." This number, obviously, was not (as Al-Manar claimed) restricted to employees; in fact, Tsviya Shimon (http://usinfo.state.gov/is/Archive_Index/World_Trade_Center_Tragedy_Hits_All_Nationalities.html), minister of administrative affairs for the Israeli consulate and mission in New York, said on September 14 "that there might have been up to 100 Israeli citizens working in the World Trade Center". There were a total of 5 Israeli deaths in the attack (Alona Avraham, Leon Lebor, Shay Levinhar, Daniel Lewin, Haggai Sheffi), of which 3 were in the World Trade center and 2 were on the planes. (4 are listed as American on most lists, presumably having dual citizenship.)

However, since September 11 was an election day in New York that year, it is quite possible that many people did not necessarily skip work, but rather many may have gone to the polls to vote, intending to go in to work later in the day. This fact may account in part for the magnitude of the number suggested, if indeed the occupancy figures at the time of the impacts was significantly lower than would otherwise be expected.


Claims of an Israeli conspiracy to frame Arabs

Various rumors circulated in the Arab world following the attack to the effect that non-Muslims, in particular Israelis or supporters of Israel, perpetrated the attack to frame Arabs and Muslims; see 9/11 conspiracy claims regarding Jews or Israel. No specific proof has been presented in support of this claim (other than the already-refuted contention that Jewish workers avoided going to the towers). The nature of such a conspiracy claim makes it virtually impossible to conclusively disprove - just as it would be impossible to prove that the attack was not actually perpetrated by the Chinese, by Zimbabweans, or by members of any other group.

Claim that Sharon stayed away because of a Shabak warning

Al-Manar claimed that:

Suspicions had increased further after Israeli newspaper Yadiot Ahranot revealed that the Shabak prevented Israeli premier Ariel Sharon from traveling to New York and particularly to the city's eastern coast to participate in a festival organized by the Zionist organizations in support of the "Israel". Aharon Bernie, the commentator at the newspaper, brought up the issue and came up with a negative conclusion, saying "no answer". He then asked about the clue behind the Shabak's position in preventing Sharon's participation, and again without giving an answer.

A massive pro-Israel rally, led by the United Jewish Communities, had been planned for September 23, 2001, and Ariel Sharon had been going to speak there[14] (http://www.jewishsf.com/content/2-0-/module/displaystory/story_id/16680/edition_id/328/format/html/displaystory.html). It was canceled on September 12[15] (http://www.ujc.org/content_display.html?ArticleID=15820). However, according to The Forward, Sharon was still scheduled to speak there at that point[16] (http://www.forward.com/issues/2001/01.09.14/news3.html).

Claims of a "credible threat" against Bush

After President Bush faced some criticism for flying around the US in Air Force One instead of returning immediately to Washington or New York, members of his administration (Vice President Dick Cheney, National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice) told the press on several occasions that there had been a "credible threat" against Bush by terrorists. Later, AP and CBS news investigated this claim and found it to be false. In response to this, the Administration officials said that there had been a "misunderstanding". White House officials also claimed that the plane which crashed into the Pentagon originally was aimed at the White House. That claim was also debunked.

Claims that the towers were blown up with explosives

Some claim that the towers could not have been leveled only from damage caused by collision with the hijacked planes. They find it implausible that the relatively small amount of rapid-burning jet fuel could have melted the towers' steel beams. Some furthermore indicate as suspicious the fact that both buildings fell straight down even though the plane crashed into the corner of Tower 2. (One might wonder, though, why the attackers would want the buildings to fall straight down, if their goal was maximum damage.)

Several variations of this claim exist, but each concludes that the World Trade Center must have been detonated from within. Contemporaneously, several news commentators made statements to the effect that the collapse 'looked like a controlled demolition'.

For example, video footage has led some people to believe that the buildings were demolished professionally with explosives. [17] (http://www.serendipity.li/wtc.htm). A group of engineers believe the Twin Towers and 7 World Trade Center strangely collapsed, regarding the vertical collapse of the three buildings as an unlikely occurrence without the aid of explosives. "Explosives put in WTC concrete.." (http://www.rumormillnews.com/cgi-bin/archive.cgi?read=25146)

However, most engineers view the collapse as sensible and even predictable given the conditions. According to this view, the jet fuel (which never burns hot enough to actually melt steel anyway) acted to instantaneously spread the fire. The impact furthermore blew insulation off of steel beams. Because of these factors, the steel was quickly heated enough to lose significant strength. In concert with structural damage, this softening of steel caused failure. [18] (http://www.tms.org/pubs/journals/JOM/0112/Eagar/Eagar-0112.html) Once failure thus occurs, the monolithic mass and internal center of gravity permitted each tower to fall essentially in only one direction: straight down. This view has been officially confirmed by forensic analysis of key components of debris.

Significant debate among engineers exists about exactly which mechanisms felled the towers, but claims about explosives are, for the most part, not seriously entertained by 'mainstream' forensic and structural engineers.

See also: Collapse of the World Trade Center

Claims that the Pentagon was not hit by a Boeing 757

Image of the explosion at the Pentagon
Enlarge
Image of the explosion at the Pentagon

A French Web site (http://www.asile.org/citoyens/numero13/pentagone/erreurs_en.htm) has disputed that Flight 77 hit the Pentagon. It does not explain what happened to the plane and its crew and passengers. Its claims have later been published in two books by Thierry Meyssan, The Big Lie (ISBN 1592090265) and Pentagate (ISBN 1592090281).

In March 2002 the US authorities released photographs from a surveillance camera. The pictures, complete with times (set to another time zone) at the bottom corner, can be found on this BBC webpage (http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1861977.stm) or at this CNN webpage (http://archives.cnn.com/2002/US/03/07/gen.pentagon.pictures/index.html). The first picture is timed 17:37:19 and the last 17:37:23. It is however impossible to recognize the shape of a plane from these pictures, and only a ground-level explosion can be seen, fueling speculation that the Pentagon was not hit by a commercial jet.

Some claim the object depicted in photographs about to strike the building has a different shape and size than a Boeing 757, and that photographs taken after the Pentagon was hit and before the damaged part collapsed, show the hole being less than that a 757 would produce, even assuming that most of the wings did come off. It's claimed that the small hole in the Pentagon is inconsistent with the damage caused by similar planes to the World Trade Center. Opponents to the theory counter that the Pentagon's wall's greater mass limited structural damage that a plane's wings could cause. On the other hand, the massive Kevlar walls of the Pentagon, blocking the wings from slicing through the construction, may have caused a lot of plane debris and parts to be visible in the area if they were not pulled into the building. The lack of significant debris in pictures of the pentagon lawn also fuels speculation that a 757 did not strike the building.

Some have alleged inconsistencies in the official version and also purport that video footage from at least 4 cameras alongside the plane approach (on hotel rooftop, at a gas station and on the highway) route were confiscated by the FBI minutes after the explosion and never released [19] (http://www.freedomunderground.org/memoryhole/pentagon121.swf).

Immediately after the explosion some eyewitnesses described the object as a missile, although most recalled some sort of plane. Indeed, several specifically recall a large plane [20] (http://urbanlegends.about.com/library/blflight77w.htm). Conflicting recollections demonstrate at best the unreliability of memory around tragic events. Other quotes supposedly come from firefighters working inside the building who claim no debris from the Boeing 757 plane exist. Other witnesses and photographs show parts in the wreckage that are identifiable as parts used in a 757. [21] (http://www.rense.com/general32/phot.htm).

External links

The speculations about what happened at the Pentagon have caused much interest, and there are websites in support or against this rumor.

  • This (http://www.cyberspaceorbit.com/math_geometry.html) is a webpage that claims it is mathematically impossible for the plane to have hit the Pentagon in that time without moving at mach speeds.
  • A rebuttal page (http://www.snopes.com/rumors/pentagon.htm) exists at snopes.com.
  • This page (http://www.rense.com/general32/phot.htm) shows pictures of wreckage and debris inside the pentagon, and also the hole in the Pentagon's wall.
  • This site (http://perso.wanadoo.fr/jpdesm/pentagon/english.html) presents many pictures and graphic analyses of them, and suggests that it was likely that a Boeing 757 crashed into the Pentagon, but also that the official version is faulty and that the truth is being hidden.

Claims that US military aircraft shot down Flight 93 to stop it reaching Washington

US authorities have denied shooting down Flight 93, but some claim there is contrary evidence.

Although US authorities claim the plane crashed at 10:03, seismic activity in the region indicates that the plane actually crashed at 10:06. One hypothesis presented is that an F-16 shot out one of the engines just after UA 93 flew over the Johnstown Cambria County Airport around 10:03 AM after which the plane crashed in Shanksville at 10:06 15-16 minutes before it would have otherwise reached Washington, D.C. This would be consistent with the seismic activity and consistent with a timeline given in the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (http://www.post-gazette.com/popup.asp?img=/images2/20011028Flight93map.jpg).

Wreckage (including engine wreckage) was found upwind of the crash site, and roughly in the direction from which the plane came, implying that the plane broke up at least to some degree before it crashed. However, this is ambiguous and much wreckage can be expected to be strewn as a result of the crash that occurred. Had the plane broken up in midair, at least some of the bodies would have been scattered. Instead they were all found in the crater.

There are observations by many eyewitnesses who saw other aircraft in the area. US authorities have said that they have identified a civilian aircraft that was in the area, and that it had nothing to do with the downing of Flight 93.

Additional evidence can be garnered from a Meet the Press interview on September 16th 2001 between Tim Russert and Dick Cheney: VICE PRES. CHENEY: Well, the - I suppose the toughest decision was this question of whether or not we would intercept incoming commercial aircraft. MR. RUSSERT: And you decided? VICE PRES. CHENEY: We decided to do it. We'd, in effect, put a flying combat air patrol up over the city; F-16s with an AWACS, which is an airborne radar system, and tanker support so they could stay up a long time.

More speculation was fueled by a statement made by Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld on Christmas Eve 2004 during a visit to troops after the suicide bombing of a mess tent. He said that the people who committed the tent bombing were the same ones who hit the World Trade Center and "shot down the plane over Pennsylvania".

A statement that a sonic boom was detected shortly before the crash has now been withdrawn by its author and contrary to what several media reports have stated, passenger Edward Felt did not report seeing 'white smoke' pouring into the toilet from where he was making a phone call from the plane.

Claims that Bush knew of the attacks in advance

President Bush certainly knew that bin Laden was a terrorist who would like to attack the USA, as is confirmed by the release of the August 6, 2001 Presidential Daily Briefing, but the specificity of Bush's knowledge is hotly debated. Some rumors suggest that Bush may have had detailed knowledge of the actual attack, and that he allowed the attacks to occur for political reasons, but no substantiating evidence has been made public. The PDB does mention "seventy full field investigations" and that the intelligence community has been unable to "confirm some of the more sensational threat reporting", leaving open the question as to whether detailed information about the plot was available to the administration.

Bush has claimed many times that he had no specific forewarnings of an impending attack on U.S. soil, and it remains unclear exactly what Bush might have anticipated.

Bush's December 4 2001 comment, and I was sitting outside the classroom waiting to go in, and I saw an airplane hit the tower -- the TV was obviously on, and I use to fly myself, and I said, "There's one terrible pilot.",[22] (http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2001/12/20011204-17.html)[23] (http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0112/04/se.04.html) even though footage of the first plane hitting the WTC was not televised until the a day or two after, was interpreted by some as proof that the President had advance knowledge of the attack. Bush is not known for his clarity of speech, and the statement could also be taken to mean "I saw that an airplane had hit the tower" - meaning, Bush had seen the damage to the building caused by the first crash, as was widely televised before the second crash, rather than the impact of either plane. [24] (http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0112/04/se.04.html)

(For whatever reason, he substantially repeated himself a month later: "when we walked into the classroom, I had seen this plane fly into the first building. There was a TV set on. And you know, I thought it was pilot error and I was amazed that anybody could make such a terrible mistake."[25] (http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2002/01/20020105-3.html))

This is further discussed in 9/11 domestic conspiracy theory.

Reports that Zacarias Moussaoui was the '20th hijacker'

When Zacarias Moussaoui was initially taken into custody he was alleged to have been part of the September 11 plot. He was commonly referred to as the "20th hijacker".

Although Moussaoui seems to have been training for an act of aircraft terrorism, there has been no evidence found to link him with Flight 93 or any of the other aircraft. He did not train with the other hijackers and seems to have had no contact with them. According to Ramzi Binalshibh, a person who was part of the plot, a role for Moussaoui was contemplated but never materialized.

Claims that the hijackers took control of the aircraft solely with box cutters

What little information that is available about tactics used to take control of the aircraft came from the phone calls from passengers and flight attendants. They used a variety of weapons, in which box cutters did play a part.

Barbara Olson, who was on Flight 77, reported that the hijackers had knives and box cutters. Passengers on Flight 93 reported knives and bomb threats (including a box that reportedly contained a bomb). A flight attendant on Flight 11 said she was disabled by chemical spray, and references were also made to a bomb. Box cutters were also presumably used on Flight 11, as Mohammed Atta purchased some at Portland on the night of September 10. Stabbings were also reported by a passenger on Flight 175. The term 'knife' in all of these reports may well have included 'box cutter,' especially when one recalls the stressful circumstances, and the fact that many people would not be familiar with the term 'box cutter.' The 9/11 Commission concluded they used Leatherman Utility Knives which explains why the passengers claimed they saw the hijackers with knife-like devices.


Claims that the attackers planned to use crop-dusters for a biological or chemical attack

The federal government twice grounded crop-dusters after 9/11 and the original indictment of Moussaoui suggested that he and the other plotters were investigating crop dusters. There were even reports from Florida that Atta and other Arab men inquired about crop dusters. A Department of Agriculture official claimed that Atta asked for a government loan to buy a plane for crop-dusting.

Although this evidence seems compelling, it doesn't hold up well to deeper examination. First of all, the date that Atta was purported to have visited a crop-dusting facility doesn't match with any dates where he was in the vicinity. The Moussaoui indictment later dropped any references to crop-dusting. In their interrogations, the captured planners did not indicate any interest in a crop-dusting attack and that the plan was always to fly airplanes into buildings. While a loan may have been sought from the Agricultural Department for a stated purpose of crop-dusting, it does not necessarily mean that the airplane was intended to be used for this purpose.

Claims that supporters of the attacks profited on airline stocks

Although there were reports that trading of put options on airline stocks was unusually busy before 9/11, a Securities and Exchange Commission investigation has so far yielded no complaints of illegal activity.

Osama and "Evil Bert"

Claim that a "Bert is Evil" website was removed because of an image showing Osama bin Laden and the popular muppet.

A photograph of a pro-bin Laden rally in Bangladesh showed a poster of Osama bin Laden with a small but clearly identifiable image of Bert, a muppet from the children's television show Sesame Street, over his right shoulder. (Another smaller image of bin Laden is immediately to the right of Bert's image.) The photo is from Reuters, and was not doctored. In fact, the image of Osama and Bert had been created (using an image editing tool) by a humorist earlier and placed on a website, and the person who made the poster must have copied it from the World Wide Web, leaving in the image of Evil Bert.

As a response to this, the creator of the "Bert is Evil" website has taken down the site and posted a note explaining the decision. "I am doing this because I feel this has gotten too close to reality," he says, "and I choose to be responsible enough to stop it right here." For full message text, see [26] (http://www.fractalcow.com/bert/bert.htm). For a detailed account of the use of the image, in South Asia as well as by Western news agencies, see [27] (http://www.lindqvist.com/bert.php). (The latter also argues against the notion that inclusion of the Bert image of the photo is some kind of coded communication.)

Although the creator of Bert is Evil requested that all mirror versions of his site be taken down, versions of the site remain widely accessible online as of 2004.

The smoke demon

Several photographs were circulated throughout the Internet in the days following the tragedy that depicted smoke rising from the Twin Towers that resembled demonic heads. It has been confirmed by AP that at least one of these photos is authentic. See [28] (http://www.snopes.com/rumors/wtcface.htm) and [29] (http://urbanlegends.about.com/library/bltabloid-arch10.htm).

The pictures certainly seem to be genuine, but most people see this as an example of pareidolia.

Parallel War Games

In the pilot episode of The Lone Gunmen, which aired in March 2001, a small cabal within the military-industrial complex used a wargame scenario as cover for the hijacking of a commercial flight and crashing it into the World Trade Center. In what the government describes as a bizarre coincidence, the US was holding multiple war games during the September 11, 2001 attacks, some strongly resembling the actual attacks. [30] (http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/news/archive/2002/08/21/national1518EDT0686.DTL)

Hidden images on the $20 bill

Within a few months of the attacks, it was discovered that one could generate images that look like the attacked buildings by taking a new-style $20 bill and folding it in the following manner:

  • With the picture of the White House facing you, fold the bill in half lengthwise by folding the top down to the back. Now just the bottom of the White House should be visible.
  • Fold the ends down (toward the front) so that the top forms a point and the two ends are even at the bottom.

When the bill is turned so that the point is at the bottom, an image of what looks like the smoking World Trade Center is visible.

Missing image
0billbackside.gif
Image:$20billbackside.gif

Flip the bill over, and an image of what looks like the smoking Pentagon is also visible.

Missing image
0billfrontside.gif
Image:$20billfrontside.gif

In reality, the "images" are portions of the picture of the White House, with the image of the smoke coming from the trees beside it. It startled many to see that such an amazing coincidence could come from a few simple folds, with a bill that was issued several years before the attacks took place. The folding process will not produce the images on an old-style $20 bill (from before edition September 24, 1998), but it will work with the series 2003 "colorful" type of twenty that contains the same picture of the White House.

False fundraising

Scambusters reported instances of email fundraising scams in the wake of the tragedy, and posted tips to help consumers ensure their donations reached the right agencies.

Five Israelis were filming the event

This claim formed part of a mostly false Al-Manar report which triggered many of the 9/11 conspiracy claims regarding Jews or Israel; it claimed that:

For its part, the Israeli Ha'aretz newspaper revealed that the FBI arrested five Israelis four hours after the attack on the Twin Towers while filming the smoking skyline from the roof of their company's building. The FBI had arrested the five for "puzzling behavior". They are said to have been caught videotaping the disaster in what was interpreted as cries of joy and mockery.

This claim was correct: Yossi Melman did indeed make a report to that effect in Haaretz on September 17, 2001[31] (http://www.haaretzdaily.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=75266&contrassID=2&subContrassID=1&sbSubContrassID=0&listSrc=Y), still available from Haaretz' site, and used the precise words "puzzling behavior" and "what was interpreted as cries of joy and mockery." It has been followed up on by several mainstream Western media groups, including ABC, some of which are listed at the Sunday Herald's website (http://ww1.sundayherald.com/np/911mystery.shtml).

Claims of other Attacks on 9/11/2001

On September 11th 2001 reporters for WCBS TV NY Channel 2 and CNN claimed that there were reports from the police that there were gunshots fired at the U.S. State Department, FBI Headquarters, and NASA Headquarters, and that they had found hundreds of pounds of explosives on the George Washington Bridge over the Hudson River and at the Vince Lombardi rest stop on the New Jersey Turnpike. It was later said that these claims were just "bad reporting."

Also on September 11th, at about 6:00 AM (before the attacks), just as President Bush was waking up for his morning jog in Longboat Key, Florida, a van full of Middle Eastern men reportedly arrived at the resort where Bush was staying, claiming they had a poolside interview with the President. They were turned away because they had no appointment. Some suggest that this was part of an assassination attempt on the President (perhaps modeled after the successful attack on Ahmed Shah Massoud.[32] (http://www.longboatobserver.com/showarticle.asp?ai=1874)

Other rumors

Various incidents have occurred since September 11, 2001, with no evidence to support a causal link to the terrorist attack. They include:

  • On September 21, 2001, the AZF chemical factory in Toulouse, southern France, exploded, causing 29 deaths. On October 4, 2001, France's environment minister declared that it may have been a terrorist attack.
  • In the morning of October 3, 2001, a man slit the throat of the driver of Greyhound bus No. 1115, en route from Nashville to Atlanta, 50 miles southeast of Nashville. The bus crashed, killing four of the 36 passengers. Early reports stated at least 10 were killed. Later reports assert that the bus attacker was a drug addict with a history of erratic behavior.
  • On October 4, 2001, a Russian jetliner en route from Tel Aviv to Siberia with 77 passengers exploded in mid-air before plunging into the Black Sea. All flights from Ben Gurion International Airport were grounded in response. Later reports asserted that a Ukrainian missile mistakenly took down the jetliner. Missile fragments were recovered from the crash site, and the government of Ukraine has accepted responsibility for the accidental targeting of the jet.
  • On October 4, 2001, it is announced that Bob Stevens, a 63-year-old Lantana, Florida, resident was admitted to a hospital on Tuesday with non-contagious pulmonary anthrax. He later died. Bob Stevens, a British-born outdoorsman and gardener, was a photo editor at the supermarket tabloid The Sun. On October 8, 2001 health officials and the FBI report that they have discovered bacillus anthracis spores on a computer keyboard at the offices of The Sun and in the nose of a co-worker, who was not diagnosed with the disease. The FBI sealed the building.
  • On October 11, 2001, 700 pounds (318 kg) of explosives were discovered missing from a facility in Texas.
  • On October 12, 2001, a case of anthrax was reported in New York City. A female NBC Nightly News employee was reported to have been exposed to anthrax. It was believed that she received it from a letter containing powder on September 25. The powder in the letter tested negative for anthrax. A skin test of the employee by the CDC returned positive for non-contagious cutaneous anthrax. She had been exposed on September 25. She began presenting symptoms on September 28. She began receiving Cipro on October 1. A biopsy was done on October 10 and sent to the CDC.

See also

Specific controversial claims

General controversial claims

External links

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