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Salishan languages

From Academic Kids

The Salishan (also Salish) languages are a group of languages of western Canada and the Pacific Northwest of the United States. They are characterised by agglutinativity and astonishing consonant clusters—for instance the Nuxálk word (IPA: ) meaning 'he had had a bunchberry plant' has 13 consonants in a row with no vowels.

Missing image
Salishan_langs.png
distribution of Salishan languages (in red)

The terms Salish and Salishan are used interchangeably by Salishan linguists and anthropologists. Many languages do not have self-designations and instead have specific names for local dialects as the local group was much more important culturally than larger tribal relations.

Family division

The Salishan language family consists of 23 languages:

I. Bella Coola

1. Nuxálk (a.k.a. Bella Coola)

II. Coast Salish

A. Central Coast Salish (a.k.a. Central Salish)
i. North Georgia
2. Comox
3. Pentlatch
4. Sechelt (a.k.a. Seshelt, Shashishalhem)
ii. South Georgia
5. Squamish (a.k.a. Sqwxwu7mish, Skwxwu7mesh)
6. Halkomelem
7. Nooksack
Straits Salish
8. Northern Straits
9. Klallam (a.k.a. Clallam)
iii. Lushootseed
10. Lushootseed (a.k.a. Puget Salish, Skagit-Nisqually)
iv. Twana
11. Skokomish (a.k.a. Twana)
B. Tsamosan (a.k.a. Olympic)
i. Maritime
12. Quinault
13. Lower Chehalis
ii. Inland
14. Upper Chehalis
15. Cowlitz (a.k.a. Lower Cowlitz)
C. Tillamook
16. Tillamook (a.k.a. Hutyéyu)

III. Interior Salish

A. Northern
17. Shuswap (a.k.a. Secwepemctsín)
18. St’át’imcets (a.k.a. Lillooet)
19. Thompson (a.k.a. Nlaka’pamux, Ntlakapmuk)
B. Southern
20. Colville-Okanagan (a.k.a. Okanagan, Nsilxcín)
21. Spokane-Kalispel-Flathead
22. Coeur d’Alene (a.k.a. Snchitsu’umshtsn)
23. Columbian (a.k.a. Columbia, Moses Columbia, Moses Columbian)

Pentlatch, Nooksack, Twana, Lower Chehalis, Upper Chehalis, Cowlitz, and Tillamook are now extinct. Many dialects of the other languages are also extinct. All Salishan languages are endangered—some extremely so (i.e. only 3 or 4 speakers left).

External link

Template:Na-lang-stub

Bibliography

de:Salish-Sprachen
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