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Sumerian king list

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Ancient Mesopotamia
EuphratesTigris
Assyriology
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Sumer: UrukUrEridu
KishLagashNippur
Akkadian Empire: Agade
BabylonIsinSusa
Assyria: AssurNineveh
NuziNimrud
BabyloniaChaldea
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Kings of Sumer
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Language
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SumerianAkkadian
ElamiteHurrian
Mythology
En?lish
GilgameshMarduk
Nibiru
 
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The Sumerian king list is an ancient text in the Sumerian language listing kings of Sumer from Sumerian and foreign dynasties. The later Babylonian king list and Assyrian king list were similar. The list records the location of the "official" kingship and the rulers, with the lengths of their rule. The kingship was believed to be handed down by the gods and could be passed from one city to another by military conquest. The list mentions only one female ruler: Kug-Baba, the tavern-keeper, who alone accounts for the third dynasty of Kish.

The list peculiarly blends from ante-diluvian, probably mythological kings with impossibly long reigns, into clearly historical dynasties. It cannot be ruled out that even the earliest names in the list correspond to historical rulers who later became mythological figures.

The first name on the list whose existence has been authenticated through recent archaeological discoveries, is that of Enmebaragesi of Kish, whose name is also mentioned in the Gilgamesh epics. This has led some to suggest that Gilgamesh himself was a historical king of Uruk, and not just a legendary one.

Conspicuously absent from this list are the priest-rulers of Lagash, who are known directly from inscriptions from ca. the 25th century BC. Another early ruler in the list who is clearly historical is Lugal-Zage-Si of Uruk of the 23rd century BC, who conquered Lagash, and who was in turn conquered by Sargon of Akkad.

The list is central, for lack of a more accurate source, for the chronology of the 3rd millennium BC. However, in addition to the sometimes unrealistic durations of reigns, the numbers cannot simply be added because the dynasties presented to have reigned in succession, with the kingship passing from city to city, more likely reigned simultaneously, with each dynasty ruling its own city. For this reason, Common Era dates of early rulers given in older publications are often given as considerably more recent today. Uncertainty especially as to the duration of the Gutian period also makes dates for events predating the Third dynasty of Ur (21st century BC) with any accuracy nearly impossible (see also Shulgi, Ur-Nammu).

Contents

Early Dynastic I

Ante-diluvian kings, legendary, or earlier than ca. the 26th century BC.

"After the kingship descended from heaven, the kingship was in Eridug. In Eridug, Alulim became king; he ruled for 28800 years."

  • Alulim of Eridug: 28800 years
  • Alalgar of Eridug: 36000 years
  • En-Men-Lu-Ana of Bad-Tibira: 43200 years
  • En-Men-Gal-Ana of Bad-Tibira: 28800 years
  • Dumuzid of Bad-Tibira, the shepherd: 36000 years
  • En-Sipad-Zid-Ana of Larag: 28800 years
  • En-Men-Dur-Ana of Zimbir: 21000 years

Early Dynastic II

Mythological kings, or kings of ca. the 26th century BC. Many rulers known from contemporary inscriptions are not found in the King Lists.

"After the flood had swept over, and the kingship had descended from heaven, the kingship was in Kish."

First Dynasty of Kish

  • Jushur of Kish: 1200 years
  • Kullassina-bel of Kish: 960 years
  • Nangishlishma of Kish: 670 years
  • En-Tarah-Ana of Kish: 420 years
  • Babum of Kish: 300 years
  • Puannum of Kish: 840 years
  • Kalibum of Kish: 960 years
  • Kalumum of Kish: 840 years
  • Zuqaqip of Kish: 900 years
  • Atab of Kish: 600 years
  • Mashda of Kish: 840 years
  • Arwium of Kish: 720 years
  • Etana of Kish, the shepherd, who ascended to heaven and consolidated all the foreign countries: 1500 years
  • Balih of Kish: 400 years
  • En-Me-Nuna of Kish: 660 years
  • Melem-Kish of Kish: 900 years
  • Barsal-Nuna of Kish: 1200 years
  • Zamug of Kish: 140 years
  • Tizqar of Kish: 305 years
  • Ilku of Kish: 900 years
  • Iltasadum of Kish: 1200 years
  • En-Men-Barage-Si of Kish, who conquered Elam: 900 years
  • Aga of Kish: 625 years

Then Kish was defeated and the kingship was taken to E-ana.

First Dynasty of Uruk

  • Mesh-ki-ang-gasher of E-ana, son of Utu: 324 years.

Mesh-ki-ang-gasher went into the Sea and disappeared.

  • Enmerkar, who built Unug: 420 years
  • Lugalbanda of Unug, the shepherd: 1200 years
  • Dumuzid of Unug, the fisherman: 100 years. Captured En-Me-Barage-Si of Kish.
  • Gilgamesh, whose father was a "phantom", lord of Kulaba: 126 years.
  • Ur-Nungal of Unug: 30 years
  • Udul-Kalama of Unug: 15 years
  • La-Ba'shum of Unug: 9 years
  • En-Nun-Tarah-Ana of Unug: 8 years
  • Mesh-He of Unug: 36 years
  • Melem-Ana of Unug: 6 years
  • Lugal-Kitun of Unug: 36 years

Then Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to Urim.

First dynasty of Ur

ca. 25th century BC

  • Mesh-Ane-Pada of Urim: 80 years
  • Mesh-Ki-Ang-Nanna of Urim: 36 years
  • Elulu of Urim: 25 years
  • Balulu of Urim: 36 years

Then Urim was defeated and the kingship was taken to Awan.

Early Dynastic III

The 1st Dynasty of Lagash is well known from inscriptions, though not mentioned in the King List.

Awan

  • Three kings of Awan, ruling for a total of 356 years.

Then Awan was defeated and the kingship was taken to Kish.

Second Dynasty Kish

  • Susuda of Kish: 201 years
  • Dadasig of Kish: 81 years
  • Mamagal of Kish, the boatman: 360 years
  • Kalbum of Kish: 195 years
  • Tuge of Kish: 360 years
  • Men-Nuna of Kish: 180 years
  •  ? of Kish: 290 years
  • Lugalngu of Kish: 360 years

Then Kish was defeated and the kingship was taken to Hamazi.

Hamazi

  • Hadanish of Hamazi: 360 years

Then Hamazi was defeated and the kingship was taken to Unug.

Second Dynasty of Uruk

  • En-Shakansha-Ana of Unug: 60 years
  • Lugal-Ure (or Lugal-Kinishe-Dudu) of Unug: 120 years
  • Argandea of Unug: 7 years

Then Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to Urim.

Second Dynasty of Ur

  • Nani of Urim: 120 years
  • Mesh-Ki-Ang-Nanna of Urim: 48 years
  •  ? of Urim: 2 years

Then Urim was defeated and the kingship was taken to Adab.

Adab

  • Lugal-Ane-Mundu of Adab: 90 years

Then Adab was defeated and the kingship was taken to Mari.

Mari

  • Anbu of Mari: 30 years
  • Anba of Mari: 17 years
  • Bazi of Mari: 30 years
  • Zizi of Mari: 20 years
  • Limer of Mari, the gudu priest: 30 years
  • Sharrum-Iter of Mari: 9 years

Then Mari was defeated and the kingship was taken to Kish.

Third Dynasty of Kish

  • Kug-Baba of Kish, the woman tavern-keeper, who made firm the foundations of Kish: 100 years
(the only woman in the King Lists)

Then Kish was defeated and the kingship was taken to Akshak.

Akshak

  • Unzi of Akshak: 30 years
  • Undalulu of Akshak: 6 years
  • Urur of Akshak: 6 years
  • Puzur-Nirah of Akshak: 20 years
  • Ishu-Il of Akshak: 24 years
  • Shu-Sin of Akshak7 years

Then Akshak was defeated and the kingship was taken to Kish.

Fourth Dynasty of Kish

  • Puzur-Sin of Kish: 25 years
  • Ur-Zababa of Kish: 400 (6?) years
  • Zimudar of Kish: 30 years
  • Ussi-Watar of Kish: 7 years
  • Eshtar-Muti of Kish: 11 years
  • Ishme-Shamash of Kish: 11 years
  • Shu-Ilishu of Kish: 15 years
  • Nanniya of Kish, the jeweller: 7 years.

Then Kish was defeated and the kingship was taken to Unug.

Third Dynasty of Uruk

(2259 BC2235 BC short chronology) defeated Lagash.

Akkad

  • Sargon, whose father was a gardener, the cupbearer of Ur-Zababa, the king (first emperor) of Agade, who built Agade: 56 years
(ca. 2235 BC short chronology)
  • Rimush, younger son of Sargon: 9 years
  • Man-Ishtishu, older son of Sargon: 15 years
  • Naram-Sin, son of Man-Ishtishu: 56 years
  • Shar-Kali-Sharri, son of Naram-Sin: 25 years

Then who was king? Who was the king?

  • Irgigi, Imi, Nanum, Ilulu: four of them ruled for only 3 years
  • Dudu: 21 years
  • Shu-Durul, son of Dudu: 15 years

Then Agade was defeated and the kingship was taken to Unug.

Fourth Dynasty of Uruk

(Possibly rulers of lower Mesopotamia contemporary with the dynasty of Akkad)

  • Ur-Ningin of Unug: 7 years
  • Ur-Gigir of Unug: 6 years
  • Kuda of Unug: 6 years
  • Puzur-Ili of Unug: 5 years
  • Ur-Utu (or Lugal-Melem) of Unug: 25 years

Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to the army of Gutium.

Gutian period

In the army of Gutium, at first no king was famous; they were their own kings and ruled thus for 3 years

  • Inkishush of Gutium: 6 years
  • Zarlagab of Gutium: 6 years
  • Shulme (or Yarlagash) of Gutium: 6 years
  • Silulumesh (or Silulu) of Gutium: 6 years
  • Inimabakesh (or Duga) of Gutium: 5 years
  • Igeshaush (or Ilu-An) of Gutium: 6 years
  • Yarlagab of Gutium: 3 years
  • Ibate of Gutium: 3 years
  • Yarla of Gutium: 3 years
  • Kurum of Gutium: 1 year
  • Apil-Kin of Gutium: 3 years
  • La-Erabum of Gutium: 2 years
  • Irarum of Gutium: 2 years
  • Ibranum of Gutium: 1 year
  • Hablum of Gutium: 2 yaers
  • Puzur-Sin of Gutium: 7 years
  • Yarlaganda of Gutium: 7 years
  •  ? of Gutium: 7 years
  • Tiriga of Gutium: 40 days

Uruk

  • Utu-hengal of Unug: conflicting dates (427 years / 26 years / 7 years)
drives out the Gutians

Third dynasty of Ur

"Sumerian Renaissance"

ruled ca. 2065 BC2047 BC short chronology.
ruled ca. 2047 BC1999 BC short chronology.
  • Amar-Sina of Urim: 9 years
  • Shu-Sin of Urim: 9 years
  • Ibbi-Sin of Urim: 24 years

Then Urim was defeated. The very foundation of Sumer was torn out (?). The kingship was taken to Isin.

Dynasty of Isin

Independent Amorite states in lower Mesopotamia. The dynasty ends at ca. 1730 BC short chronology.

  • Ishbi-Erra of Isin: 33 years
  • Shu-ilishu of Isin: 20 years
  • Iddin-Dagan of Isin: 20 years
  • Ishme-Dagan of Isin: 20 years
  • Lipit-Eshtar of Isin" 11 years
  • Ur-Ninurta of Isin (the son of Ishkur, may he have years of abundance, a good reign, and a sweet life): 28 years
  • Bur-Sin of Isin: 5 years
  • Lipit-Enlil of Isin: 5 years
  • Erra-Imitti of Isin: 8 years
  • Enlil-Bani of Isin: 24 years
  • Zambiya of Isin: 3 years
  • Iter-Pisha of Isin: 4 years
  • Ur-Dul-Kuga of Isin: 4 years
  • Sin-Magir of Isin: 23 years

There are 11 cities, cities in which the kingship was exercised. A total of 134 kings, who altogether ruled for 28876 + X years.

See also

External links and references

de:Sumerische Königsliste es:Lista de reyes sumerios nl:Lijst van koningen van Sumer pt:Lista de reis da Suméria sv:Sumeriska kungalistan

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