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Supercentenarian

From Academic Kids

A supercentenarian (sometimes hyphenated super-centenarian) is someone who has reached the age of 110 years or more, something achieved by only one in a thousand centenarians (0.1%, based on European data). In turn, only about one supercentenarian in fifteen lives to turn 114.

The term has been around at least since the 1970s (as one citation, Norris McWhirter, editor of Guinness, used the word in correspondence with age claims researcher A. Ross Eckler, Jr. in 1976), and was further popularized in 1991 by William Strauss and Neil Howe, in their book entitled Generations. Early references tend to mean simply "someone well over 100" but the 110-and-over cutoff is the accepted criterion of demographers.

Missing image
Ann_Pouder.jpg
Supercentenarian Ann Pouder (8 April 180710 July 1917) photographed on her 110th birthday
Contents

History

While claims of extreme age have persisted from the earliest times in history, the earliest supercentenarian who has substantial scholarly acceptance is Geert Adriaans Boomgaard, who was born in Groningen, Netherlands, September 21, 1788, and died there February 3, 1899.

About eight hundred supercentenarians have been documented in history, and this is doubtless a fraction of the number who have really lived, but the majority of claims to this age one finds recorded do not have sufficient documentary support to be regarded as validated. This is slowly changing as those born after birth registration was standardized in more countries and parts of countries attain supercentenarian age.

The longest documented lifespan is the 122 years 164 days of Jeanne Calment (1875–1997). While her stories of meeting Vincent Van Gogh or attending the 1885 funeral of Victor Hugo might have been embroidered, her life was documented in the records of her native city of Arles, France, beyond reasonable question.

The Guinness Book of World Records in 1978 accepted the claim that Shigechiyo Izumi was born June 29, 1865, and from the 1980 edition considered him the oldest person. He died February 21, 1986 (the 111th birthday of Jeanne Calment). However, there is still doubt as to whether he was wrongly conflated with a brother who died young.

For supercentenarians known for anything other than their extreme age, see centenarians.

Oldest living people

Official oldest living person

The following is a list of the oldest recognized people in the world since 1991 and the period for which they were the titleholder:

From To Name Age at death Lived Town, Country
February 1991 August 1997 Jeanne Calment 122 February 211875August 41997 Arles, France
August 1997 April 1998 Marie-Louise Meilleur 117 August 291880April 161998 Corbeil, Ontario, Canada
April 1998 December 1999 Sarah Knauss 119 September 241880December 301999 Allentown, Pennsylvania, USA
December 1999 November 2000 Eva Morris 114 November 81885November 22000 Stone, Staffordshire, England
November 2000 June 2001 Marie Brémont 115 April 251886June 62001 Cande, Maine-et-Loire, France
June 2001 March 2002 Maude Farris-Luse 115 January 211887March 182002 Coldwater, Michigan, USA
March 2002 October 2003 Kamato Hongo 116 September 161887October 312003 Kagoshima, Japan
October 2003 November 2003 Mitoyo Kawate 114 May 151889November 132003 Hiroshima, Japan
November 2003 May 2004 Ramona Trinidad Iglesias-Jordan 114 August 311889May 292004 Utuado, Puerto Rico
May 2004 - Hendrikje van Andel June 291890 Hoogeveen, Netherlands

Oldest recognized living man

Name Born Died Notes
Shigechiyo Izumi 29 June 1865 (?) 21 February 1986 Oldest man recognized by Guinness Book of World Records
Joe Thomas (supercentenarian) 1 May 1875 14 December 1986 American from Louisiana
Herman Smith-Johannsen 15 June 1875 5 January 1987 Norwegian-Canadian cross-country skier
Alphaeus Philemon Cole 12 July 1876 25 November 1988 Engraver
John Evans 19 August 1877 10 June 1990 British male recordholder
Henri Perignon 14 October 1879 18 June 1990 France
James W. Wiggins 15 October 1879 16 October 1991 USA
Frederick L. Frazier 27 January 1880 14 June 1993 USA
Christian Mortensen 16 August 1882 25 April 1998 Danish immigrant to USA, oldest man widely accepted by scholars
Johnson Parks 15 October 1884 17 July 1998 Black American, lived in Florida
Walter Richardson 7 November 1885 25 December 1998 Illinois
Denzo Ishisaki 20 October 1886 29 April 1999 Only man in post-Izumi years to be oldest person in Japan
John Painter 20 September 1888 1 March 2001 Oldest record available (1900 census) supports the Sept. 1888 birthdate but other records disagree
Antonio Todde 22 January 1889 3 January 2002 Sardinian
Yukichi Chuganji 23 March 1889 28 September 2003 Oldest recognized man in world January 2002–September 2003, in Ogori
Joan Riudavets 15 December 1889 5 March 2004 Oldest person in history of Spain, was oldest recognized European, world's oldest recognized man 2003–4; he rode a bicycle to age 110, on Minorca
Fred H. Hale, Sr. 1 December 1890 19 November 2004 Born in Maine, oldest man in world March–November 2004, died in Jamesville, New York
Emiliano Mercado del Toro 21 August 1891 - From Puerto Rico, accepted by Guinness as "oldest living man" on 17 January 2005 (retroactively would be "oldest living man" since 19 November 2004).

Among the oldest ever

Name Age Born Died Notes
Benito Martinez 125 1880 still living Claimed to be oldest supercentenarian by himself and government of Cuba
Jeanne Calment 122 21 February 1875 4 August 1997 Oldest documented supercentenarian
Sarah Knauss 119 24 September 1880 30 December 1999 Oldest in United States history, oldest recognized in world 1998–99
Lucy Hannah 117 16 July 1875 21 March 1993 Oldest African American
Marie-Louise Meilleur 117 29 August 1880 16 April 1998 Oldest Canadian, oldest recognized in world 199798
Tane Ikai 116 18 January 1879 12 July 1995 Oldest Japanese woman
Christian Mortensen 115 16 August 1882 25 April 1998 Oldest undisputed male, Danish immigrant to US
Charlotte Marion Milburn Hughes 115 1 August 1877 17 March 1993 British longevity recordholder

Among the oldest living, 2005 (113+)

Name Born Notes
Hendrikje van Andel 29 June 1890 Oldest person in history of the Netherlands, oldest recognized in world after death of Ramona Trinidad Iglesias-Jordan
Elizabeth "Lizzie" Bolden 15 August 1890 Oldest verified living American, 2nd-oldest in world; verified Apr. 2005
Bettie Wilson 13 September 1890 Formerly oldest verified living American (Dec. 2004-Apr. 2005), 3rd-oldest in world; recordholder for state of Mississippi, where she lives
Maria do Couto Maia-Lopes 24 October 1890 Oldest woman in history of Portugal, 4th-oldest in world
Susie Gibson 31 October 1890 Lives in Alabama; 5th-oldest in world; claims birth 1889, 1890 is based on census records
Grace Thaxton 18 June 1891 Oldest living person in Kentucky, 6th-oldest in world
Emiliano Mercado del Toro 21 August 1891 Oldest living man (since 19 November 2004), 7th-oldest in world
Julie Winnefred Bertrand 16 September 1891 Oldest living Canadian, 8th-oldest in world
Virginia Dighero-Zolezzi 24 December 1891 Oldest person in history of Italy, 9th-oldest in world
Camille Loiseau 13 February 1892 Oldest living French, 10th-oldest in world
M. Gladys Swetland 18 April 1892 Oldest living person in Pennsylvania, 11th-oldest in world
Lucy D'Abreu 24 May 1892 Oldest living person in Scotland and oldest person of Indian descent, 12th-oldest in world

Notably early and long-lived among supercentenarians

Name Born Died Notes
Delina Filkins 1815 1928 Herkimer County, New York
Betsy Russell Baker 1842 1955 British immigrant to Nebraska

National longevity recordholders

Main article: National longevity recordholders

By nation of death or current residence

Country Age Sex Name Born Died
France 122 f Jeanne Calment 21 February 1875 4 August 1997
US 119 f Sarah Knauss 24 September 1880 30 December 1999
Canada 117 f Marie-Louise Meilleur 29 August 1880 16 April 1998
Japan 116 f Tane Ikai (assuming Izumi false) 18 January 1879 12 July 1995
UK 115 f Charlotte Hughes 1 August 1877 17 March 1993
Romania 115 f Anitica Batariu 17 June 1882 21 November 1997
Puerto Rico 114 f Ramona Trinidad Iglesias Jordan 31 August 1889 29 May 2004
Australia 114 f Christina Cock 25 December 1887 22 May 2002
Spain 114 m Joan Riudavets 15 December 1889 5 March 2004
Netherlands 114* f Hendrikje Van Andel 29 June 1890 -
Portugal 114* f Maria do Couto Maia-Lopes 24 October 1890 -
Italy 113* f Virginia Dighero-Zolezzi 24 December 1891 -
Germany 112 f Maria Laqua (documents withheld) 12 February 1889 9 February 2002
Finland 112 f Lempi Maria Rothovius 2 October 1887 17 June 2000
Belgium 112 f Joanna DeRoover 3 June 1890 6 December 2002
Sweden 112 f Elsa Moberg 30 June 1889 27 November 2001
Norway 112 f Maren Bolette Torp 21 December 1876 20 February 1989
Ireland 111 f Katherine Plunket 22 November 1820 14 October 1932
South Africa 111 f Johanna Booyson 17 January 1857 16 June 1968
Denmark 111 f Anne Matthiesen 26 November 1884 19 March 1996
New Zealand 110 f Ethel Booth 25 December 1890 18 February 2001

Emigrant records

Country Age Sex Name Born Died Notes
Denmark 115 m Christian Mortensen 16 August 1882 25 April 1998 died U.S.
Cape Verde 114 f Adelina Domingues 19 February 1888 21 August 2002 died U.S.
Germany 114 f Charlotte Benkner 16 November 1889 14 May 2004 died U.S.
Italy 113 f Amalia Ruggieri-Barone 6 October 1884 26 June 1998 died U.S.
India 113* f Lucy D'Abreu 24 May 1892 - lives in UK
Morocco 111 f Consuelo Moreno-Lopez 5 February 1893 13 November 2004 died U.S.
Algeria 111 m Emile Fourcade 29 July 1884 29 December 1995 died France
Greece 110 m Gregory Pandazes 15 January 1873 22 December 1983 died U.S.
Peru 110 f Julia Dougherty 20 August 1893 4 December 2003 died U.S.

See also

External links

References

  • Louis Epstein: The Oldest Human Beings (http://www.recordholders.org/en/list/oldest.html) — list of validly-documented supercentenarians (by age and chronological), including a chronological list of the oldest living listed persons since 1955. (For a time in the 1960s the oldest living person did not reach 110.)nl:Oudste mens

de:Ältester Mensch es:Centenario

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