Table of Chinese monarchs

From Academic Kids

Below is a table of Chinese monarchs.

From the Shang dynasty to the Qin, rulers usually held the title King (王 wng). With the division of China into separate Warring States, this title had become so common that the unifier of China, the first Qin emperor Qin Shi Huang created a new title for himself, that of Emperor (皇帝 hungd). This title of Emperor continued to be used for the remainder of China's imperial history, right down to the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1912.

Chinese monarchs were known by many different names, and how they should be identified is often confusing. Sometimes the same emperor is commonly known by two or three separate names, or the same name is used by emperors of different dynasties. The tables below do not necessarily include all of an emperor's names - for example, posthumous names could run to more than twenty characters and were rarely used in historical writing - but where possible the most commonly used name or naming convention has been indicated.

These tables may not necessarily represent the most recently updated information on Chinese monarchs; please check the page for the relevant dynasty for possible additional information.

Contents

Xia dynasty

Ca. 2070 BC - 1600 BC1

Reign name2 Notes Name by which most commonly known
Yǔ Also known as: Dà Yǔ, 大禹 Yu
Qǐ Son of Yu: beginning of hereditary succession Qi
Tài Kāng太康   Tai Kang
Zhòng Kāng仲康   Zhong Kang
Xiāng   Xiang
Shào Kāng少康   Shao Kang
Zhù   Zhu
Huái   Huai
Máng   Mang
Xie   Xie
Bù Jiàng不降   Bu Jiang
Jiōng   Jiong
Jǐn   Jin
Kǒng Jiǎ孔甲   Kong Jia
Gāo   Gao
Fā   Fa
Jié Also known as: Ľ Gǔi, 履癸 Jie
1 The first generally accepted date in Chinese history is 841 BC. All dates prior to this are the subject of often vigorous dispute. The dates provided here are those put forward by The Xia-Shang-Zhou Chronology Project, the work of scholars sponsored by the Chinese government which reported in 2000. They are given only as a guide.
2 The reign name is sometimes preceded by the name of the dynasty, Xià (夏), for example Xià Yǔ (夏禹).

Shang dynasty

Ca. 1600 BC - 1046 BC1

Personal name Reign name2 Temple name3 Reign years1 Name by which most commonly known
  Tang
  1600 BC - 1300 BC Tang
  Wai Bing
外丙
  Wai Bing
  Zhong Ren
仲壬
  Zhong Ren
  Tai Jia
太甲
  Tai Jia
  Wo Ding
沃丁
  Wo Ding
  Tai Geng
太庚
  Tai Geng
  Xiao Jia
小甲
  Xiao Jia
  Yong Ji
雍己
  Yong Ji
  Tai Wu
太戊
  Tai Wu
  Zhong Ding
仲丁
  Zhong Ding
  Wai Ren
外壬
  Wai Ren
  He Dan Jia
河亶甲
  He Dan Jia
  Zu Yi
祖乙
  Zu Yi
  Zu Xin
祖辛
  Zu Xin
  Wo Jia
沃甲
  Wo Jia
  Zu Ding
祖丁
  Zu Ding
  Nan Geng
南庚
  Nan Geng
  Yang Jia
陽甲
  Yang Jia
  Pan Geng
盤庚
  1300 BC - 1251 BC Pan Geng4
  Xiao Xin
小辛
  Xiao Xin
  Xiao Yi
小乙
  Xiao Yi
  Wu Ding
武丁
  1250 BC - 1192 BC Wu Ding
  Zu Geng
祖庚
  1191 BC - 1148 BC Zu Geng
  Zu Jia
祖甲
  Zu Jia
  Lin Xin
廩辛
  Lin Xin
  Geng Ding
庚丁
Kang Ding
康丁
Kang Ding
  Wu Yi
武乙
  1147 BC - 1113 BC Wu Yi
  Wen Ding5
文丁
  1112 BC - 1102 BC Wen Ding
  Di Yi
帝乙
  1101 BC - 1076 BC Di Yi
Zi Zhou
子紂
Di Xin
帝辛
  1075 BC - 1046 BC Di Xin
1 The first generally accepted date in Chinese history is 841 BC. All dates prior to this are the subject of often vigorous dispute. The dates provided here are those put forward by The Xia-Shang-Zhou Chronology Project, the work of scholars sponsored by the Chinese government which reported in 2000. They are given only as a guide.
2 The reign name is sometimes preceded by the name of the dynasty, Shang (商), for example Shang Tang (商湯).
3 The name used in the oracle bone inscription records of ancestral sacrifice.
4 The period of the Shang dynasty starting from Pan Geng is also frequently referred to as the Yin (殷) dynasty. because he changed capital to Yin.
5 Also known as Tai Ding (太丁).

Zhou dynasty

Mid 11th century BC - 256 BC, traditionally divided into:

Personal name Posthumous name Reign years1 Name by which most commonly known
Ji Fa
姬發
Wuwang
武王
1046 BC-1043 BC1 Zhou Wuwang
(King Wu of Zhou)
Ji Song
姬誦
Chengwang
成王
1042 BC-1021 BC1 Zhou Chengwang
(King Cheng of Zhou)
Ji Zhao
姬釗
Kangwang
康王
1020 BC-996 BC1 Zhou Kangwang
(King Kang of Zhou)
Ji Xia
姬瑕
Zhaowang
昭王
995 BC-977 BC1 Zhou Zhaowang
(King Zhao of Zhou)
Ji Man
姬滿
Muwang
穆王
976 BC-922 BC1 Zhou Muwang
(King Mu of Zhou)
Ji Yihu
姬繄扈
Gongwang
共王
922 BC-900 BC1 Zhou Gongwang
(King Gong of Zhou)
Ji Jian
姬囏
Yiwang
懿王
899 BC-892 BC1 Zhou Yiwang
(King Yi of Zhou)
Ji Pifang
姬辟方
Xiaowang
孝王
891 BC-886 BC1 Zhou Xiaowang
(King Xiao of Zhou)
Ji Xie
姬燮
Yiwang
夷王
885 BC-878 BC1 Zhou Yiwang
(King Yi of Zhou)
Ji Hu
姬胡
Liwang
厲王
877 BC-841 BC1 Zhou Liwang
(King Li of Zhou)
  Gonghe (regency)
共和
841 BC-828 BC Gonghe
Ji Jing
姬靜
Xuanwang
宣王
827 BC-782 BC Zhou Xuanwang
(King Xuan of Zhou)
Ji Gongsheng
姬宮湦
Youwang
幽王
781 BC-771 BC Zhou Youwang
(King You of Zhou)
Ji Yijiu
姬宜臼
Pingwang
平王
770 BC-720 BC Zhou Pingwang
(King Ping of Zhou)
Ji Lin
姬林
Huanwang
桓王
719 BC-697 BC Zhou Huanwang
(King Huan of Zhou)
Ji Tuo
姬佗
Zhuangwang
莊王
696 BC-682 BC Zhou Zhuangwang
(King Zhuang of Zhou)
Ji Huqi
姬胡齊
Xiwang
釐王
681 BC-677 BC Zhou Xiwang
(King Xi of Zhou)
Ji Lang
姬閬
Huiwang
惠王
676 BC-652 BC Zhou Huiwang
(King Hui of Zhou)
Ji Zheng
姬鄭
Xiangwang
襄王
651 BC-619 BC Zhou Xiangwang
(King Xiang of Zhou)
Ji Renchen
姬壬臣
Qingwang
頃王
618 BC-613 BC Zhou Qingwang
(King Qing of Zhou)
Ji Ban
姬班
Kuangwang
匡王
612 BC-607 BC Zhou Kuangwang
(King Kuang of Zhou)
Ji Yu
姬瑜
Dingwang
定王
606 BC-586 BC Zhou Dingwang
(King Ding of Zhou)
Ji Yi
姬夷
Jianwang
簡王
585 BC-572 BC Zhou Jianwang
(King Jian of Zhou)
Ji Xiexin
姬泄心
Lingwang
靈王
571 BC-545 BC Zhou Lingwang
(King Ling of Zhou)
Ji Gui
姬貴
Jingwang
景王
544 BC-521 BC Zhou Jingwang
(King Jing of Zhou)
Ji Meng
姬猛
Daowang
悼王
520 BC Zhou Daowang
(King Dao of Zhou)
Ji Gai
姬丐
Jingwang
敬王
519 BC-476 BC Zhou Jingwang
(King Jing of Zhou)
Ji Ren
姬仁
Yuanwang
元王
475 BC-469 BC Zhou Yuanwang
(King Yuan of Zhou)
Ji Jie
姬介
Zhendingwang
貞定王
468 BC-442 BC Zhou Zhendingwang
(King Zhending of Zhou)
Ji Quji
姬去疾
Aiwang
哀王
441 BC Zhou Aiwang
(King Ai of Zhou)
Ji Shu
姬叔
Siwang
思王
441 BC Zhou Siwang
(King Si of Zhou)
Ji Wei
姬嵬
Kaowang
考王
440 BC-426 BC Zhou Kaowang
(King Kao of Zhou)
Ji Wu
姬午
Weiliewang
威烈王
425 BC-402 BC Zhou Weiliewang
(King Weilie of Zhou)
Ji Jiao
姬驕
Anwang
安王
401 BC-376 BC Zhou Anwang
(King An of Zhou)
Ji Xi
姬喜
Liewang
烈王
375 BC-369 BC Zhou Liewang
(King Lie of Zhou)
Ji Bian
姬扁
Xianwang
顯王
368 BC-321 BC Zhou Xianwang
(King Xian of Zhou)
Ji Ding
姬定
Shenjingwang
慎靚王
320 BC-315 BC Zhou Shenjingwang
(King Shenjing of Zhou)
Ji Yan
姬延
Nanwang
赧王
314 BC-256 BC Zhou Nanwang
(King Nan of Zhou)
  Huiwang
惠王
255 BC-249 BC Zhou Huiwang2
(King Hui of Zhou)
1 The first generally accepted date in Chinese history is 841 BC, the beginning of the Gonghe regency. All dates prior to this are the subject of often vigorous dispute. The dates provided here are those put forward by The Xia-Shang-Zhou Chronology Project, the work of scholars sponsored by the Chinese government which reported in 2000. They are given only as a guide.
2 Nobles of the Ji family proclaimed King Hui as King Nan's successor after their capital, Luoyang, fell to Qin forces in 256 BC. However Zhou resistance did not last long in the face of the Qin advance and so King Nan is widely considered to have been the last emperor of the Zhou dynasty.

Qin dynasty

Sovereigns of Qin Dynasty 221 B.C.-207 B.C.
Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號) Personal Names Period of Reigns
Convention: "Qin" + posthumous name
Note: King Zhaoxiang of Qin (秦昭襄王, Qn Zhāoxiāng Wng) had already been ruling Qin for 51 years when Qin anniliated Zhou Dynasty; however the other six warring states were still independent regimes. Historiographers thus used the next year (the 52nd year of Qin Zhaoshang Wang) as the official continuation from Zhou Dynasty therefore so should we. Qin Shi Huang was the first Chinese sovereign proclaiming himself "Emperor".
昭襄王 Zhāoxiāng Wng 嬴則 Yng Z or 嬴稷 Yng J 255 B.C.-250 B.C.
孝文王 Xio Wnwng 嬴柱 Yng Zh 250 B.C.
莊襄王 Zhuāngxiāng Wng 嬴子楚 Yng Zichǔ 249 B.C.-247 B.C.
始皇帝 Shǐ Hungd 嬴政 Yng Zhng 246 B.C.-210 B.C.
二世皇帝 r Sh Hund 嬴胡亥 Yng Hhi 209 B.C.-207 B.C.
Ziying can be referred to using either his personal name or Qn Wng Ziyīng (秦王子嬰)
Did not exist 嬴子嬰 Yng Ziyīng 207 B.C.

Han dynasty



Han Dynasty Sovereigns
Posthumous Name Personal Name Period of Reign Era Name Range of years
Convention: "Han" + posthumous name
Western Han Dynasty 206 BC9 AD
Gao Zu
高祖
Liu Bang
劉邦
206 BC195 BC Did not exist
Hui Di
惠帝
Liu Ying
劉盈
194 BC188 BC Did not exist
Shao Di (Shao Di Gong)
少帝
Liu Gong
劉恭
188 BC184 BC Did not exist
Shao Di (Shao Di Hong)
少帝
Liu Hong
劉弘
184 BC180 BC Did not exist
Wen Di
文帝
Liu Heng
劉恆
179 BC157 BC Huyun (後元) 163 BC156 BC
Jing Di
景帝
Liu Qi
劉啟
156 BC141 BC Zhōngyun (中元)
Huyun (後元)
149 BC143 BC
143 BC141 BC
Wu Di
武帝
Liu Che
劉徹
140 BC87 BC Jinyun (建元)

Yunguāng(元光)
Yunshu (元朔)
Yunshu (元狩)
Yundǐng (元鼎)
Yunfēng (元封)
Tichū (太初)
Tiānhn (天漢)
Tishǐ (太始)
Zhēngh (征和)

Huyun (後元)
140 BC135 BC

134 BC129 BC
128 BC123 BC
122 BC117 BC
116 BC111 BC
110 BC105 BC
104 BC101 BC
100 BC97 BC
96 BC93 BC
92 BC89 BC

88 BC87 BC
Zhao Di
昭帝
Liu Fuling
劉弗陵
86 BC74 BC Shǐyun (始元)

Yunfng (元鳳)

Yunpng (元平)
86 BC80 BC

80 BC75 BC

74 BC
Chang Yi Wang
昌邑王
Liu He
劉賀
74 BC Yunpng (元平) 74 BC
Xuan Di
宣帝
Liu Xun
劉詢
73 BC49 BC Běnshǐ (本始)

Dji (地節)
Yunkāng (元康)
Shnju (神爵)
Wǔfng (五鳳)
Gānl (甘露)

Hunglng (黃龍)
73 BC70 BC

69 BC66 BC
65 BC61 BC
61 BC58 BC
57 BC54 BC
53 BC50 BC

49 BC
Yuan Di
元帝
Liu Shi
劉奭
48 BC33 BC Chūyun (初元)

Yǒngguāng (永光)
Jinzhāo (建昭)

Jngnng (竟寧)
48 BC44 BC

43 BC39 BC
38 BC34 BC

33 BC
Cheng Di
成帝
Liu Ao
劉驁
32 BC7 BC Jinshǐ (建始)

Hpng (河平)
Yngshu (陽朔)
Hngjiā (鴻嘉)
Yǒngshǐ (永始)
Yunyn (元延n2)

Suīh (綏和)
32 BC28 BC

28 BC25 BC
24 BC21 BC
20 BC17 BC
16 BC13 BC
12 BC9 BC

8 BC7 BC
Ai Di
哀帝
Liu Xin
劉欣
6 BC1 BC Jinpng (建平)
Yunshu (元壽)
6 BC3 BC
2 BC1 BC
Ping Di
平帝
Liu Kan
劉衎
15 Yunshǐ (元始) 15
Ru Zi Ying
孺子嬰
Liu Ying
劉嬰
68 Jsh (居攝)
Chūshǐ (初始)
6 – October 8
November 8 – December 8
Xin Dynasty by Wang Mang 923 Shǐjingu (始建國)

Tiānfēng (天鳳)

Dhung (地皇)
913

1419

2023
Geng Shi Di
更始帝
Liu Xuan
劉玄
2325 Gēngshǐ (更始) 2325
Eastern Han Dynasty 25220
Guang Wu Di
光武帝
Liu Xiu
劉秀
2557 Jinwǔ (建武)
Jinwǔzhongōyun (建武中元)
2556
5657
Ming Di
明帝
Liu Zhuang
劉莊
5875 Yǒngpng (永平) 5875
Zhang Di
章帝
Liu Da
劉炟
7688 Jinchū (建初)

Yunh (元和)

Zhāngh (章和)
7684

8487

8788
He Di
和帝
Liu Zhao
劉肇
89105 Yǒngyun (永元)
Yunxīng (元興)
89105
105
Shang Di
殤帝
Liu Long
劉隆
106 Ynpng (延平) 9 months in 106
An Di
安帝
Liu Hu
劉祜
106125 Yǒngchū (永初)

Yunchū (元初)
Yǒngnng (永寧)
Jinguāng (建光)

Ynguāng (延光)
107113

114120
120121
121122

122125
Shao Di or Bei Xiang Hou
少帝 or 北鄉侯
Liu Yi
劉懿
125 Ynguāng (延光) 125
Shun Di
順帝
Liu Bao
劉保
125144 Yǒngjin (永建)

Yngjiā (陽嘉)
Yǒngh (永和)
Hn'ān (漢安)

Jinkāng (建康)
126132

132135
136141
142144

144
Chong Di
沖帝
Liu Bing
劉炳
144145 Yōngxī (永熹) 145
Zhi Di
質帝
Liu Zuan
劉纘
145146 Běnchū (本初) 146
Huan Di
桓帝
Liu Zhi
劉志
146168 Jinh (建和)

Hpng (和平)
Yunjiā (元嘉)
Yǒngxīng (永興)
Yǒngshu (永壽)
Ynxī (延熹)

Yǒngkāng (永康)
147149

150
151153
153154
155158
158167

167
Ling Di
靈帝]]
Liu Hong
劉宏
168189 Jinnng (建寧)

Xīpng (熹平)
Guāngh (光和)

Zhōngpng (中平)
168172

172178
178184

184189
Shao Di or Hong Nong Wang
少帝 or 弘農王
Liu Bian
劉辯
189 Guīngxī (光熹)
Zhonng (昭寧)
189
189
Xian Di
獻帝
Liu Xie
劉協
189220 Yǒnghn (永漢)

Chūpng (初平)
Xīngpng (興平)
Jin'ān (建安)

Ynkāng (延康)
189

190193
194195
196220

220

Three Kingdoms Period



Three Kingdoms Sovereigns
Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
Wei 220-265 AD
Convention: "Wei" + posthumous name, sometimes except Cao Pi who was referred using personal names.
Wen Di (文帝 wen2 di4) Cao Pi|曹丕 cao2 pi1 220-226 Huangchu (黃初 huang2 chu1) 220-226
Ming Di (明帝 ming2 di4) Cao Rui|曹叡 cao2 rui4 226-239

Taihe (太和 tai4 he2) 227-233
Qinglong (青龍 qing1 long2) 233-237
Jingchu (景初 jing3 chu1) 237-239

Qi Wang (齊王 qi2 wang2) Cao Fang|曹芳 cao2 fang1 239-254

Zhengshi (正始 zheng4 shi3) 240-249
Jiaping (嘉平 jia1 ping2) 249-254

Gao Gui Xiang Gong (高貴鄉公 gao1 gui4 xiang1 gong1) Cao Mao|曹髦 cao2 mao2 254-260

Zhengyuan (正元 zheng4 yuan2) 254-256

Ganlu (甘露 gan1 lu4) 256-260
Yuan Di (元帝 yuan2 di4) Cao Huan|曹奐 cao2 huan4 260-265

Jingyuan (景元 jing3 yuan2) 260-264
Xianxi (咸熙 xian2 xi1) 264-265

Shu or Shu Han 221 - 263
Convention: use personal name
Zhao Lie Di (昭烈帝 zhao1 lie4 di4) 劉備 (liu2 bei4) 221-223 Zhangwu (章武 zhang1 wu3) 221-223
Hou Zhu (後主 hou4 xhu3) Liu Shan|劉禪 (liu2 xhan2) 223-263

Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 223-237
Yanxi (延熙 yan2 xi1) 238-257
Jingyao (景耀 jing3 yao4) 258-263
Yanxing (炎興 yan2 xing1) 263

Wu 222-280
Convention: use personal name
Da Di (大帝 da4 di4) 孫權 sun1 quan2 222-252

Huangwu (黃武 huang2 wu3) 222-229
Huanglong (黃龍 huang2 long2) 229-231
Jiahe (嘉禾 jia1 he2) 232-238
Chiwu (赤烏 chi4 wu1) 238-251
Taiyuan (太元 tai4 yuan2) 251-252
Shenfeng (神鳳 shen2 feng4) 252

Kuai ji wang (會稽王 kuai4 ji1 wang2) Sun Liang|孫亮 sun1 liang4 252-258

Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 252-253
Wufeng (五鳳 wu3 feng4) 254-256
Taiping (太平 tai4 ping2) 256-258

Jing Di (景帝 jing3 di4) Sun Xiu 孫休 sun1 xiu1 258-264 Yongan (永安 yong3 an1) 258-264
Wu Cheng Hou (烏程侯 wu1 cheng2 hou2) Sun Hao 孫皓 sun1 hao4 264-280

Yuanxing (元興 yuan2 xing1) 264-265
Ganlu (甘露 gan1 lu4) 265-266
Baoding (寶鼎 bao3 ding3) 266-269
Jianheng (建衡 jian4 heng2) 269-271
Fenghuang (鳳凰 feng4 huang2) 272-274
Tiance (天冊 tian1 ce4) 275-276
Tianxi (天璽 tian1 xi3) 276
Tianji (天紀 tian1 ji4) 277-280

Jin Dynasty



Jin Dynasty (265-420) Sovereigns
Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
Convention: "Jin" + posthumous name
Xi (Western) Jin Dynasty 265-317
Wu Di (武帝 wu3 di4) Sima Yan 司馬炎 si1 ma3 yan2 265-290

Taishi (泰始 tai4 shi3) 265-274
Xianning (咸寧 xian2 ning2)275-280
Taikang (太康 tai4 kang1) 280-289
Taixi (太熙 tai4 xi1) 290

Hui Di (惠帝 hui4 di4) Sima Zhong|司馬衷 si1 ma3 zhong1 290-306

Yongxi (永熙 yong3 xi1) 290
Yongping (永平 yong3 ping) 291
Yuankang (元康 yuan2 kang1) 291-299
Yongkang (永康 yong3 kang1) 300-301
Yongning (永寧 yong3 ning2) 301-302
Taian (太安 tai4 an1) 302-303
Yongan (永安 yong3 an1) 304
Jianwu (建武 jian4 wu3) 304
Yongan (永安 yong3 an1) 304
Yongxing (永興 yong3 xing1) 304-306
Guangxi (光熙 guang1 xi1) 306

Huai Di (懷帝 huai2 di4) Sima Chi|司馬熾 si1 ma3 chi4 307-311 Yongjia (永嘉 yong3 jia1) 307-313
Min Di(愍帝 min3 di4) Sima Ye|司馬鄴 si1 ma3 ye4 313-317 Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 313-317
Dong (Eastern) Jin Dynasty 317 AD - 420 AD
Yuan Di (元帝 yuan2 di4) Sima Rui|司馬睿 si1 ma3 rui4 317-322

Jianwu (建武 jian4 wu3) 317-318
Daxing (大興 da4 xing1) 318-321
Yongchang (永昌 yong3 chang3) 321-322

Ming Di (明帝 ming2 di4) Sima Shao|司馬紹 si1 ma3 shao4 322-325

Yongchang (永昌 yong3 chang3) 322-323
Taining (太寧 tai4 ning2) 323-325

Cheng Di (成帝 cheng2 di4) Sima Yan|司馬衍 si1 ma3 yan3 325-342

Taining (太寧 tai4 ning2) 325
Xianhe (咸和 xian2 he2) 326-334
Xiankang (咸康 xian2 kang1) 335-342

Kang Di (康帝 kang1 di4) Sima Yue|司馬岳 si1 ma3 yue4 342-344 Jianyuan (建元 jian4 yuan2) 343-344
Mu Di (穆帝 mu4 di4) Sima Dan|司馬聃 si1 ma3 dan1 345-361

Yonghe (永和 yong3 he2) 345-356
Shengping (升平 sheng1 ping2) 357-361

Ai Di (哀帝 ai1 di4) Sima Pi|司馬丕 si1 ma3 pi1 361-365

Longhe (隆和 long2 he2) 362-363
Xingning (興寧 xing1 ning2) 363-365

Fei Di (海西公 hai3 xi1 gong1) Sima Yi|司馬奕 si1 ma3 yi4 365-371 Taihe (太和 tai4 he2) 365-371
Jian Wen Di (簡文帝 jian3 wen2 di4) Sima Yu|司馬昱 si1 ma3 yu4 371-372 Xianan (咸安 xian2 an1) 371-372
Xiao Wu Di (孝武帝 xiao4 wu3 di4) Sima Yao|司馬曜 si1 ma3 yao4 372-396

Ningkang (寧康 ning2 kang1) 373-375
Taiyuan (太元 tai4 yuan2) 376-396

An Di (安帝 an1 di4) Sima De Zong|司馬德宗 si1 ma3 de2 zong1 396-418

Longan (隆安 long2 an1) 397-401
Yuanxing (元興 yuan2 xing1) 402-404
Yixi (義熙 yi4 xi1) 405-418

Gong Di (恭帝 gong1 di4) Sima De Wen|司馬德文 si1 ma3 de2 wen2 419-420 Yuanxi (元熙 yuan2 xi1) 419-420

Sixteen Kingdoms Period



Sovereigns in the Period of Sixteen Kingdoms
Temple Names ( Miao Hao 廟號 miao4 hao4) Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號 ) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
Convention: use personal name
Han Zhao Empire 304-329 AD (addressed separately in traditional texts as Han Empire and Former Zhao Empire)
Han Empire 304-318
Gao Zu (高祖 gao1 zu3) Guang Wen Di (光文帝 guang1 wen2 di4) Liu Yuan|劉淵 liu2 yuan1 304-310

Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 304-308
Yongfeng (永鳳 yong3 feng4) 308-309

Herui (河瑞 he2 rui4) 309-310
Did not exist Liang Wang (梁王 liang2 wang2) Liu He|劉和 liu2 he2 7 days in 310 Did not exist
Lie Zong (烈宗 lie4 zong1) Zhao Wu Di (昭武帝 zhao1 wu3 di4) Liu Cong|劉聰 liu2 cong1 310-318

Guangxing (光興 guang1 xing1) 310-311
Jiaping (嘉平 jia1 ping2) 311-315
Jianyuan (建元 jian4 yuan2) 315-316
Linjia (麟嘉 lin2 jia1) 316-318

Did not exist Yin Di (隱帝 yin3 di4) Liu Can|劉粲 liu2 can4 a month and days in 318 Hanchang (漢昌 han4 chang1) 318
Qian (Former) Zhao Empire 318-329
Did not exist Hou Zhu (後主 hou4 xhu3) Liu Yao|劉曜 liu2 yao4 318-329 Guangchu (光初 guang1 chu1) 318-329
Hou (Later) Zhao Empire 319 - 351
Gao Zu (高祖 gao1 zu3) Ming Di (明帝 ming2 di4) Shi Le|石勒 shi2 le4 319-333

Zhaowang (趙王 zhao4 wang2) 319-328
Taihe (太和 tai4 he2) 328-330
Jianping (建平 jian4 ping2) 330-333

Did not exist Hai Yang Wang (海陽王 hai3 yang2 wang2) Shi Hong|石弘 shi2 hong2 333-334

Jianping (建平 jian4 ping2) 333
Yanxi (延熙 yan2 xi1) 334

Tai Zu (太祖 tai4 zu3) Wu Di (武帝 wu3 di4) Shi Hu|石虎 shi2 hu3 334-349

Jianwu (建武 jian4 wu3) 334-349
Taining (太寧 tai4 ning2) 349

Did not exist Qiao Wang (譙王 qiao2 wang2) Shi Shi|石世 shi2 shi4 73 days in 349 Taining (太寧 tai4 ning2) 73 days in 349
Did not exist Pang Cheng Wang (彭城王 pang2 cheng2 wang2) Shi Zun|石遵 shi2 zun1 183 days in 349 Taining (太寧 tai4 ning2) 183 days in 349
Did not exist Yi Yang Wang (義陽王 yi4 yang2 wang2) Shi Jian|石鑒 shi2 jian4 103 days within 349-350 Qinglong (青龍 qing1 long2) 103 days within 349-350
Did not exist Xin Xing Wang (新興王 xin1 xing1 wang2) Shi Zhi|石祗 shi2 zhi1 350-351 Yongning (永寧 yong3 ning2) 349-350
Cheng Han Empire 303-347 AD(addressed separately in traditional texts as Cheng Empire and Han Empire)
Cheng Empire 303-338
Shi Zu (始祖 shi3 zu3) or Shi Zu (世祖 shi4 zu3) Jing Di (景帝 jing3 di4) Li Te|李特 li3 te4 303 Jianchu (建初 jian4 chu1) or Jingchu (景初 jing3 chu1) 303
Did not exist Qin Wen Wang (秦文王 qin2 wen2 wang2) Li Liu|李流 li3 liu2 several months in 303 Did not exist
Tai Zong (太宗 tai4 zong1) Wu Di (武帝 wu3 di4) Li Xiong|李雄 li3 xiong2 303-334

Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 303-305
Yanping (晏平 yan4 ping2) 305-311
Yuheng (玉衡 yu4 heng2) 311-334

Did not exist Ai Di (哀帝 ai1 si4) Li Ban|李班 li3 ban1 7 months in 334 Yuheng (玉衡 yu4 heng2) 7 months in 334
Did not exist You Gong (幽公 you1 gong1) Li Qi|李期 li3 qi1 334-338 Yuheng (玉恆 yu4 heng2) 334-338
Han Empire 338-347
Zhong Zong (中宗 zhong1 zong1) Zhao Wen Di (昭文帝 zhao1 wen2 di4) Li Shou|李壽 li3 shou4 338-343 Hanxing (漢興 han4 xing1) 338-343
Did not exist Gui Yi Hou (歸義侯 gui1 yi4 hou2) Li Shi|李勢 li3 shi4 343-347

Taihe (太和 tai4 he2) 343-346
Jianing (嘉寧 jia1 ning2) 346-347

Qian (Former) Yan Empire 337-370
Tai Zu (太祖 tai4 zu3) Wen Ming Di (文明帝 wen2 ming2 di4) Mu Rong Huang|慕容皝 mu4 rong2 huang3 337-348 Yanwang (燕王 yan4 wang2) 337-348
Lie Zong (烈宗 lie4 zong1) Jing Zhao Di (景昭帝 jing3 zhao1 di4) Mu Rong Jun|慕容俊 mu4 rong2 jun4 348-360

Yanwang (燕王 yan4 wang2) 348-353
Yuanxi (元璽 yuan2 xi3) 353-357
Shengping (升平 sheng1 ping2) 357
Guangshou (光壽 gunag1 shou4) 357-360

Did not exist You Di (幽帝 you1 di4) Mu Rong Wei|慕容暐 mu4 rong2 wei3 360-370

Jianxi (建熙 jian4 xi1) 360-365
Jianyuan (建元 jian4 yuan2) 365-370

Hou (Later) Yan Empire 384-407
Shi Zu (世祖 shi4 zu3) Wu Cheng Di (武成帝 wu3 cheng2 di4) Mu Rong Chui|慕容垂 mu4 rong2 chui2 384-396

Yanyuan (燕王 yan4 wang2) 384-385
Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 386-396

Lie Zong (烈宗 lie4 zong1) Hui Min Di (惠愍帝 hui4 min3 di4) Mu Rong Bao|慕容寶 mu4 rong2 bao3 396-398 Yongkang (永康 yong3 kang1) 396-398
Zhong Zong (中宗 zhong1 zong1) Zhao Wu Di (昭武帝 zhao1 wu3 di4) Mu Rong Sheng|慕容盛 mu4 rong2 sheng4 398-401

Jianping (建平 jian4 ping2) 398
Changluo (長樂 chang2 le4) 399-401

Did not exist Zhao Wen Di (昭文帝 zhao1 wen2 di4) Mu Rong Xi|慕容熙 mu4 rong2 xi1 401-407

Guangshi (光始 guang1 shi3) 401-406
Jianshi (建始 jian4 shi3) 407

Nan (Southern) Yan Empire 398-410
Shi Zong (世宗 shi4 zong1) Xian Wu Di (獻武帝 xian4 wu3 di4) Mu Rong De|慕容德 mu4 rong2 de2 398-405

Yanwang (燕王 yan4 wang2) 398-400
Jianping (建平 jian4 ping2) 400-405

Did not exist Hou Zhu (後主 hou4 xhu3) Mu Rong Chao|慕容超 mu4 rong2 chao1 405-410 Taishang (太上 tai4 shang4) 405-410
Bei (Northern) Yan Empire 407-436
Did not exist Hui Yi Di (惠懿帝 hui4 yi4 di4) Gao Yun|高雲 gao1 yun2 407-409 Zhengshi (正始 zheng4 shi3) 407-409
Tai Zu (太祖 tai4 zu3) Wen Cheng Di (文成帝 wen2 cheng2 di4) Feng Ba|馮跋 feng2 ba2 409-430 Taiping (太平 tai4 ping2) 409-430
Did not exist Zhao Cheng Di (昭成帝 zhao1 cheng2 di4) Feng Hong|馮弘 feng2 hong2 430-436 Daxing (大興 da4 xing1) 430-436
Qian (Former) Liang Kingdom 320-376
Did not exist Cheng Gong (成公 cheng2 gong1) Zhang Mao|張茂 zhang1 mao4 320-324 Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 320-324
Did not exist Zhong Cheng Gong (忠成公 zhong1 cheng2 gong1) Zhang Jun|張駿 zhang1 jun4 324-346 Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 324-346
Did not exist Huan Gong (桓公 huan2 gong1) Zhang Chong Hua|張重華 zhang1 chong2 hua2 346-353 Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 346-353
Did not exist Ai Gong (哀公 ai1 gong1) Zhang Yao Ling|張曜靈 zhang1 yao4 ling2 3 months (the ninth to the twelfth month) in 353 Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 353
Did not exist Wei Wang (威王 wei1 wang2) Zhang Zuo|張祚 zhang1 zuo4 353-355

Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 353-354
Heping (和平 he2 ping2) 354-355

Did not exist Jing Dao Gong (敬悼公 jing4 dao4 gong1) or Chong Gong (沖公 chong1 gong1) Zhang Xuan Jing|張玄靖 zhang1 xuan2 jing4 355-363

Jianxing (建興 jian4 xing1) 355-361
Shengping (升平 sheng1 ping2) 361-363

Did not exist Dao Gong (悼公 dao4 gong1) Zhang Tian Xi|張天錫 zhang1 tian1 xi2 364-376 Shengping (升平 sheng1 ping2) 364-376
Hou (Later) Liang Kingdom 386 AD - 403 AD
Tai Zu (太祖 tai4 zu3) Yi Wu Wang (懿武王 yi4 wu3 wang2) Luu Guang|呂光 uu3 guang1 386-399

Taian (太安 tai4 an1) 386-389
Lunjia (麟嘉 lun2 jia1) 389-396
Longfei (龍飛 long2 fei1) 396-399

Did not exist Yin Wang (隱王 yin3 wang2) Luu Shao|呂紹 luu3 shao4 399 Longfei (龍飛 long2 fei1) 399
Did not exist Ling Wang (靈王 ling2 wang2) Luu Zuan|呂纂 luu3 zuan3 399-401 Xianning (咸寧 xian2 ning2) 399-401
Did not exist Shang Shu Gong (尚書公 shang4 shu1 gong1) or Jiankang Gong (建康公 jian4 kang1 gong1) Luu Long|呂隆 luu3 long2 401-403 Shending (神鼎 shen2 ding3) 401-403
Nan (Southern) Liang Kingdom 397 AD - 414 AD
Lie Zu (烈祖 lie4 zu3) Wu Wang (武王 wu3 wang2) Tufa Wu Gu|禿髮烏孤 tu1 fa3 wu1 gu1 397-399 Taichu (太初 tai4 chu1) 397-399
Did not exist Kang Wang (康王 kang1 wang2) Tufa Li Lu Gu|禿髮利鹿孤 tu1 fa3 li4 lu4 gu1 399-402 Jianhe (建和 jian4 he2) 399-402
Did not exist Jing Wang (景王 jing3 wang2) or Jing Wang (敬王 jing4 wang2) Tufa Ru Tan|禿髮傉檀 tu1 fa3 li4 ru4 tan2 402-414

Hongchang (弘昌 hong2 chang1) 402-404
Jiaping (嘉平 jia1 ping2) 409-414

Bei (Northern) Liang Kingdom 397-414 (as Kings of Gao Chang 442-460)
Did not exist Did not exist Duan Ye|段業 duan4 ye4 397-401

Shen Xi (神璽 shen2 xi3) 397-399
Tian Xi (天璽 tian1 xi3) 399-401

Tai Zu (太祖 tai4 zu3) Wu Xuan Wang (武宣王 wu3 xuan1 wang2) Ju Qu Meng Xun|沮渠蒙遜 ju3 qu2 meng2 xun4 401-433

Yongan (永安 yong3 an1) 401-412
Xuanshi (玄始 xuan2 shi3) 412-428
Chengxuan (承玄 cheng2 xuan2) 428-430
Yihe (義和 yi4 he2) 430-433

Did not exist Ai Wang (哀王 ai1 wang2) Ju Qu Mu Jian|沮渠牧犍 ju3 qu2 mu4 jian1 433-439 Yonghe (永和 yong3 he2) 433-439
Did not exist Did not exist Ju Qu Wu Hui|沮渠無諱 ju3 qu2 wu2 hui4 442-444

Chengping (承平 cheng2 ping2) 442-443
Qianshou (乾壽 qian2 shou4) 443-444

Did not exist Did not exist Ju Qu An Zhou|沮渠安周 ju3 qu2 an1 zhou1 444-460 Chengping (承平 cheng2 ping2) 444-460
Xi (Western) Liang Kingdom 400-421
Tai Zu (太祖 tai4 zu3) Wu Zhao Wang (武昭王 wu3 zhao1 wang2) Li Gao|李暠 li3 gao3 400-417

Gengzi (庚子 geng1 zi5) 400-405
Jianchu (建初 jian4 chu1) 406-416

Did not exist Hou Zhu (後主 hou4 xhu3) Li Xin|李歆 li3 xin1 417-420 Jiaxing (嘉興 jia1 xing1) 417-420
Did not exist Hou Zhu (後主 hou4 xhu3) Li Xun|李恂 li3 xun2 420-421 Yongjian (永建 yong3 jian4) 420-421
Qian Former Qin Empire 351 AD - 394 AD
Gao Zu (高祖 gao1 zu3) Jing Ming Di (景明帝 jing3 ming2 di4) Fu Jian|苻健 fu2 jian4 351-355 Huangshi (皇始 huang2 shi3) 351-355
Did not exist Li Wang (厲王 li4 wang2) Fu Sheng|苻生 fu2 sheng1 355-357 Shouguang (壽光 shou4 guang1) 355-357
Shi Zu (世祖 shi4 zu3) Xuan Zhao Di (宣昭帝 xuan1 zhao1 di4) Fu Jian|苻堅 fu2 jian1 357-385

Yongxing (永興 yong3 xing1) 357-359
Ganlu (甘露 gan1 lu4) 359-364
Jianyuan (建元 jian4 yuan2) 365-385

Did not exist Ai Ping Di (哀平帝 ai1 ping2 di4) Fu Pi|苻丕 fu2 pi1 385-386 Taian (太安 tai4 an1) 385-386
Tai Zong (太宗 tai4 zong1) Gao Di (高帝 gao1 di4) Fu Deng|苻登 fu2 deng1 386-394 Taichu (太初 tai4 chu1) 385-394
Did not exist Hou Zhu (後主 hou4 xhu3) Fu Chong|苻崇 fu2 chong2 several months in 394 Yanchu (延初 yan2 chu1) 394
Hou (Later) Qin Empire 384 AD - 417 AD
Tai Zu (太祖 tai4 zu3) Wu Zhao Di (武昭帝 wu3 zhao1 di4) Yao Chang|姚萇 yao2 chang2 384-393

Bai Que(白雀 bai2 que4) 384-386
Jianchu (建初 jian4 chu1) 386-393

Gao Zu (高祖 gao1 zu3) Wen Huan Di (文桓帝 wen2 huan2 di4) Yao Xing|姚興 yao2 xing1 394-416

Huangchu (皇初 huang2 chu1) 394-399
Hongshi (弘始 hong2 shi3) 399-416

Did not exist Hou Zhu (後主 hou4 xhu3) Yao Hong|姚泓 yao2 hong2 416-417 Yonghe (永和 yong3 he2) 416-417
Xi (Western) Qin Kingdom 385-400,409-431
Lie Zu (烈祖 lie4 zu3) Xuan Lie Wang (宣烈王 xuan1 lie4 wang2) Qifu Guo Ren|乞伏國仁 qi3 fu2 guo2 ren2 385-388 Jianyi (建義 jian4 yi4) 385-388
Gao Zu (高祖 gao1 zu3) Wu Yuan Wang (武元王 wu3 yuan2 wang2) Qifu Gan Gui|乞伏乾歸 qi3 fu2 gan1 gui1 388-400,409-412

Taichu (太初 tai4 chu1) 388-400
Gengshi (更始 geng4 shi3) 409-412

Tai Zu (太祖 tai4 zu3) Wen Zhao Wang (文昭王 wen2 zhao1 wang2) Qifu Chi Pan|乞伏熾磐 qi3 fu2 chi4 pan2 388-400,409-412

Yongkang (永康 yong3 kang1) 412-419
Jianhong (建弘 jian4 hong2) 420-428

Did not exist Hou Zhu (後主 hou4 xhu3) Qifu Mu Mo|乞伏暮末 qi3 fu2 mu4 mo4 428-431 Yonghong (永弘 yong3 hong2) 428-431
Xia Empire 407-431
Shi Zu (世祖 shi4 zu3) Wu Lie Di (武烈帝 wu3 lie4 di4) Helian Bo Bo|赫連勃勃 he4 lian2 bo2 bo2 407-425

Longsheng (龍升 long2 sheng1) 407-413
Fengxiang (鳳翔 feng4 xiang2) 413-418
Changwu (昌武 chang1 wu3) 418-419
Zhenxing (真興 chen1 xing1) 419-425

Did not exist Qin Wang (秦王 qin2 wang2) Helian Chang|赫連昌 he4 lian2 chang1 425-428 Chengguang (承光 cheng2 guang1) 425-428
Did not exist Ping Yuan Wang (平原王 ping2 yuan2 wang2) Helian Ding|赫連定 he4 lian2 ding4 428-431 Shengguang (勝光 sheng4 guang1) 425-428

Sovereignties established by Wu Hu




Sovereignties established by Chinese and Wu Hu but traditionally not counted in the Sixteen Kingdoms
Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
Convention: use personal name
Ran Wei Kingdom 350-352 (addressed as Wei Kingdom in traditional texts)
Wu Dao Tian Wang (武道天王 wu3 dao4 tian1 wang2) Ran Min|冉閔 ran3 min3 350-352 Yongxing (永興 yong3 xing1) 350-352
Xi (Western) Yan Empire 384-394
Wei Di (威帝 wei1 di4) Mu Rong Hong|慕容泓 mu4 rong2 hong2 384 Yanxing (燕興 yan4 xing1) 384
Did not exist Mu Rong Chong|慕容沖 mu4 rong2 chong1 384-386

Yanxing (燕興 yan4 xing1) 384-385
Gengshi (更始 geng4 shi3) 385-386

Did not exist Duan Sui|段隨 duan4 sui2 386 Changping (昌平 chang1 ping2) 386
Did not exist Mu Rong Tao|慕容韜 mu4 rong2 tao1 386 Jianming (建明 jian4 ming2) 386
Did not exist Mu Rong Yao|慕容瑤 mu4 rong2 yao2 386 Jianping (建平 jian4 ping2) 386
Did not exist Mu Rong Zhong|慕容忠 mu4 rong2 zhong1 386 Jianwu (建武 jian4 wu3) 386
Did not exist Mu Rong Yong|慕容永 mu4 rong2 yong3 386-394 Zhongxing (中興 zhong1 xing1) 386-394
Shu Kingdom 405-413
Cheng Du Wang (成都王 cheng2 du1 wang2) Qiao Zong|譙縱 qiao2 zong4 405-413 Did not exist
Chieftains of Tiefu Tribe ( mid-3rd century-391 )
Did not exist Liu Qu Bei|劉去卑 liu2 qu4 bei1 mid 3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist Liu Gao Sheng Yuan|劉誥升爰 liu2 gao4 sheng1 yuan2 mid 3rd century - late 3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist Liu Hu|劉虎 liu2 hu3 early 4th century (309?) - 341 Did not exist
Did not exist Liu Wu Heng|劉務恒 liu2 wu4 heng2 341-356 Did not exist
Did not exist Liu E Lou Tou|劉閼陋頭 liu2 e4 lou4 tou2 356-358 Did not exist
Did not exist Liu Xi Wu Qi|劉悉勿祈 liu2 xi1 wu4 qi2 358-359 Did not exist
Did not exist Liu Wei Chen|劉衛辰 liu2 wei4 chen2 359-391 Did not exist
Chieftains of Yuwen Tribe ( late-3rd century-345 )
Did not exist Yuwen Mo Huai|宇文莫槐 yu3 wen2 mo4 huai2 late 3rd century-293 Did not exist
Did not exist Yuwen Pu Hui|宇文普回 yu3 wen2 pu3 hui2 or Yuwen Pu Bo|宇文普撥 yu3 wen2 pu3 bo1 293-late 3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist Yuwen Qiu Bu Quan|宇文丘不勤 yu3 wen2 qiu1 bu4 qin2 late 3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist Yuwen Mo Gui|宇文莫圭 yu3 wen2 mo4 gui1 late 3rd century (299?)- early 4th century (302?) Did not exist
Did not exist Yuwen Xi Du Guan|宇文悉獨官 yu3 wen2 xi1 du2 guan1 early 3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist Yuwen Qi De Gui|宇文乞得歸 yu3 wen2 qi3 de5 gui1 early 3rd century - 333 Did not exist
Did not exist Yuwen Yi Dou Gui|宇文逸豆歸 yu3 wen2 yi4 dou4 gui1 333-345 Did not exist
Dukes of Liaoxi 303-338
Did not exist Duan Wu Wu Chen|段務勿塵 duan4 wu4 wu4 chen2 303-310 or 311 Did not exist
Did not exist Duan Ji Lu Quan|段疾陸眷 duan4 ji2 lu4 juan4 310 or 311 - 318 Did not exist
Did not exist Duan She Fu Chen|段涉復辰 duan4 she4 fu4 chen2 318 Did not exist
Did not exist Duan Pi Di|段匹磾 duan4 pi3 di1 318-321 Did not exist
Did not exist Duan Mo Pei|段末柸 duan4 mo4 pei1 318-325 Did not exist
Did not exist Duan Ya|段牙 duan4 ya2 325 Did not exist
Did not exist Duan Liao|段遼 duan4 liao2 326-338 Did not exist
Chieftains, Dukes and Kings of Chouchi, Wuxing and Yinping (late 2nd century- mid 6th century (555?) )
First Phase of Chouchi (late 2nd century-371)
Did not exist Yang Teng|楊騰 yang2 teng2 late 2nd century- early 3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Ju|楊駒 yang2 ju1 early 3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Qian Wan|楊千萬 yang2 qian1 wan4 early 3rd century - mid 3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Fei Long|楊飛龍 yang2 fei1 long2 mid 3rd century - late 3rd century Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Mao Sou|楊茂搜 yang2 mao4 sou1 late 3rd century - 317 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Nan Di|楊難敵 yang2 nan2 di2 317-334 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Yi|楊毅 yang2 yi4 334-337 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Chu|楊初 yang2 chu1 337-355 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Guo|楊國 yang2 guo2 355-356 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Jun|楊俊 yang2 jun4 356-360 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Shi|楊世 yang2 shi4 360-370 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Cuan|楊篡 yang2 cuan4 370-371 Did not exist
Second Phase of Chouchi 385-473
Wu Wang|武王 wu3 wang2 Yang Ding|楊定 yang2 ding4 385-394 Did not exist
Hui Wen Wang|惠文王 hui4 wen2 wang2 Yang Sheng|楊盛 yang2 sheng4 394-425 Did not exist
Xiao Zhao Wang|孝昭王 xiao4 zhao1 wang2 Yang Xuan|楊玄 yang2 xuan2 425-429 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Bao Zong|楊保宗 yang2 bao3 zong1 429 and 443 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Nan Dang|楊難當 yang2 nan2 dang1 429-441 Jianyi (建義 jian4 yi4) 436-440
Did not exist Yang Bao Chi|楊保熾 yang2 bao3 chi4 442-443 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Wen De|楊文德 yang2 wen2 de2 443-454 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Yuan He|楊元和 yang2 yuan2 he2 455-466 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Seng Si|楊僧嗣 yang2 seng1 si4 466-473 Did not exist
Kings of Wuxing 473-506 and 534-555
Did not exist Yang Wen Du|楊文度 yang2 wen2 du4 473-477 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Wen Hong|楊文弘 yang2 wen2 hong2 477-482 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Hou Qi|楊後起 yang2 hou4 qi3 482-486 Did not exist
An Wang (安王 an1 wang2) Yang Ji Shi|楊集始 yang2 ji2 shi3 482-503 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Shao Xian|楊紹先 yang2 shao4 xian1 503-506, 534-535 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Zhi Hui|楊智慧 yang2 zhi4 hui4 535-545 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Bi Xie|楊辟邪 yang2 bi4 xie2 545-553 Did not exist
Note: Yang Zhi Hui and Yang Bi Xie could be the same person
Kings of Yinping 477- mid 6th century
Did not exist Yang Guang Xiang|楊廣香 yang2 guang3 xiang1 477-483? Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Jiong|楊炯 yang2 jiong3 483-495 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Chong Zu|楊崇祖 yang2 chong2 zu3 495-before 502 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Meng Sun|楊孟孫 yang2 meng4 sun1 before 502-511 Did not exist
Did not exist Yang Ding|楊定 yang2 ding4 511- ? Did not exist
Chieftains of Tuoba Tribe 219-377 (as Kings of Dai 305?-377)
As a well known fact, Tuoba Family was the ruling family of Northern Wei Dynasty, founded by Tuoba Gui. Hence Table of Northern Wei Dynasty will start with him, not as a continuation of this table.
Note: All chieftains were revered as emperors in Weishu and Beishi which they never were. They were denoted here as 王(wang2) which was inherited by all successors of Tuoba Yi Lu.
Shen Yuan Wang|神元王 shen2 yuan2 wang2 Tuoba Li Wei|拓拔力微 tou4 ba2 li4 wei2 219-277 Did not exist
Note: His temple name was Shi Zu|始祖 shi2 zu3. Another column was not created since only he was the only chieftain before Tuoba Gui revered with a temple name
Zhang Wang|章王 zhang1 wang2 Tuoba Xi Lu|拓拔悉鹿 tou4 ba2 xi1 lu4 277-286 Did not exist
Ping Wang|平王 ping2 wang2 Tuoba Chuo|拓拔綽 tou4 ba2 chuo4 286-293 Did not exist
Si Wang|思王 si1 wang2 Tuoba Fu|拓拔弗 tou4 ba2 fu2 293-294 Did not exist
Zhao Wang|昭王 zhao1 wang2 Tuoba Lu Guan|拓拔祿官 tou4 ba2 lu4 guan1 294-307 Did not exist
Mu Wang|穆王 mu4 wang2 Tuoba Yi Tuo|拓拔猗(㐌 - 拖 without 手) tou4 ba2 yi1 yi2 295-305 Did not exist
Mu Wang|穆王 mu4 wang2 Tuoba Yi Lu|拓拔猗盧 tou4 ba2 yi1 lu2 295-316 Did not exist
Did not exist Tuoba Pu Gen|拓拔普根 tou4 ba2 pu3 gen1 316 Did not exist
Did not exist Tuoba (no first name)|拓拔? tou4 ba2 ? 316 Did not exist
Ping Wen Wang|平文王 ping2 wen2 wang2 Tuoba Yu Luu|拓拔鬱律 tou4 ba2 yu4 luu4 316-321 Did not exist
Hui Wang|惠王 hui4 wang2 Tuoba He Ru|拓拔賀傉 tou4 ba2 he4 ru4 321-325 Did not exist
Yang Wang|煬王 yang2 wang2 Tuoba He Na|拓拔紇那 tou4 ba2 he2 na3 325-329 and 335-337 Did not exist
Lie Wang|烈王 lie4 wang2 Tuoba Yi Huai|拓拔翳槐 tou4 ba2 yi4 huai2 329-335 and 337-338 Did not exist
Zhao Cheng Wang|昭成王 zhao1 cheng2 wang2 Tuoba Shi Yi Jian|拓拔什翼健 tou4 ba2 shi2 yi4 jian4 338-377 Jianguo (建國 jian4 guo2) 338-377

Northern and Southern Dynasties



Sovereigns in the Northern and Southern Dynasties Period
Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
Northern dynasty
Bei Northern Wei Dynasty 386-535
Convention: Bei (Northern) Wei + posthumous name
As a well known fact Tuoba family changed their family name to 元(yuan2) during the reign of Xiao Wen Di in 496 so we will also change from there.
Dao Wu Di|道武帝 dao4 wu3 di4 Tuoba Gui|拓拔珪 tou4 ba2 gui1 386-409

Dengguo (登國 deng1 guo2) 386-396
Huangshi (皇始 huang2 shi3) 396-398
Tianxing (天興 tian1 xing1) 398-404
Tianci (天賜 tian1 ci4) 404-409

Ming Yuan Di|明元帝 ming2 yuan2 di4 Tuoba Si|拓拔嗣 tou4 ba2 si4 409-423

Yongxing (永興 yong3 xing1) 409-413
Shenrui (神瑞 shen2 rui4) 414-416
Taichang (泰常 tai4 chang2) 416-423

Tai Wu Di|太武帝 tai4 wu3 di4 Tuoba Tao|拓拔燾 tou4 ba2 tao2 424-452

Shiguang (始光 shi3 guang1) 424-428
Shenjia (神麚 shen2 jia1) 428-431
Yanhe (延和 yan2 he2) 432-434
Taiyan (太延 tai4 yan2) 435-440
Taipingzhenjun (太平真君 tai4 ping2 zhen1 jun1) 440-451
Zhengping (正平 zheng4 ping2) 451-452

Nan An Wang|南安王 nan2 an1 wang2 Tuoba Yu|拓拔余 tou4 ba2 yu2 452 Yongping (永平 yong3 ping2) or Chengping (承平 cheng2 ping2) 452
Wen Cheng Di|文成帝 wen2 cheng2 di4 Tuoba Jun|拓拔濬 tou4 ba2 jun4 452-465

Xingan (興安 xing1 an1) 452-454
Xingguang (興光 xing1 guang1) 454-455
Taian (太安 tai4 an1) 455-459
Heping (和平 he2 ping2) 460-465

Xian Wen Di|獻文帝 xian4 wen2 di4 Tuoba Hong|拓拔弘 tou4 ba2 hong2 466-471

Tianan (天安 tian1 an1) 466-467
Huangxing (皇興 huang2 xing1) 467-471

Xiao Wen Di|孝文帝 xiao4 wen2 di4 Yuan Hong|元宏 yuan2 hong2 471-499

Yanxing (延興 yan2 xing1) 471-476
Chengming (承明 cheng2 ming2) 476
Taihe (太和 tai4 he2) 477-499

Xuan Wu Di|宣武帝 xuan1 wu3 di4 Yuan Ke|元恪 yuan2 ke4 500-515

Jingming (景明 jing3 ming2) 500-503
Zhengshi (正始 zheng4 shi3) 504-508
Yongping (永平 yong3 ping2) 508-512
Yanchang (延昌 yan2 chang1) 512-515

Xiao Ming Di|孝明帝 xiao4 ming2 di4 Yuan Xu|元詡 yuan2 xu3 516-528

Xiping (熙平 xi1 ping2) 516-518
Shengui (神龜 shen2 gui1) 518-520
Zhengguang (正光 zheng4 guang1) 520-525
Xiaochang (孝昌 xiao4 chang1) 525-527
Wutai (武泰 wu3 tai4) 528

Xiao Zhuang Di|孝莊帝 xiao4 zhuang1 di4 Yuan Zi You|元子攸 yuan2 zi5 you1 528-530

Jianyi (建義 jian4 yi4) 528
Yongan (永安 yong3 an1) 528-530

Chang Guang Wang|長廣王 chang2 guang3 wang2 or Jing Di|敬帝 jing4 di4 Yuan Ye|元曄 yuan2 ye4 530-531 Jianming (建明 jian4 ming2) 530-531
Jue Min Di|節閔帝 jie2 min3 di4 Yuan Gong|元恭 yuan2 gong1 531-532 Putai (普泰 pu3 tai4) 531-532
An Ding Wang|安定王 an1 ding4 wang2 or Chu Di|出帝 chu1 di4 Yuan Lang|元朗 yuan2 lang3 531-532 Zhongxing (中興 zhong1 xing1) 531-532
Xiao Wu Di|孝武帝 xiao1 wu3 di4 Yuan Xiu|元脩 yuan2 xiu1 532-535

Taichang (太昌 tai4 chang1) 532
Yongxing (永興 yong3 xing1) 532
Yongxi (永熙 yong3 xi1) 532-535

Dong (Eastern) Wei Dynasty 534-550
Convention: Dong (Eastern) Wei + posthumous name
Xiao Jing Di|孝靜帝 xiao1 jing4 di4 Yuan Shan Jian|元善見 yuan2 shan4 jian4 534-550

Tianping (天平 tian1 ping2) 534-537
Yuanxiang (元象 yuan2 xiang4) 538-539
Xinghe (興和 xing1 he2) 539-542
Wuding (武定 wu3 ding4) 543-550

Bei (Northern) Qi Dynasty 550-577
Convention: Bei (Northern) Qi + posthumous name
Wen Xuan Di|文宣帝 wen2 xuan1 di4 Gao Yang|高洋 gao1 yang2 550-559 Tianbao (天保 tain1 bao3) 550-559
Fei Di|廢帝 fei4 di4 Gao Yin|高殷 gao1 yin1 560 Qianming (乾明 qian1 ming2) 560
Xiao Zhao Di|孝昭帝 xiao1 zhao1 di4 Gao Yan|高演 gao1 yan3 560-561 Huangjian (皇建 huang2 jian4) 560-561
Wu Cheng Di|武成帝 wu3 cheng2 di4 Gao Zhan|高湛 gao1 zhan4 561-565

Taining (太寧 tai4 ning2) 561-562
Heqing (河清 he2 qing1) 562-565

Hou Zhu|後主 hou4 zhu3 Gao Wei|高緯 gao1 wei3 565-577

Tiantong (天統 tian1 tong3) 565-569
Wuping (武平 wu3 ping2) 570-576
Longhua (隆化 long2 hua3 576

You Zhu|幼主 you4 zhu3 Gao Heng|高恆 gao1 heng2 577 Chengguang (承光 cheng2 guang1) 577
Fan Yang Wang|范陽王 fan4 yang2 wang2 Gao Shao Yi|高紹義 gao1 shao4 yi4 577-579? Did not exist
Xi (Western) Wei Dynasty 535-556
Convention: Xi (Western) Wei + posthumous name
Wen Di|文帝 wen2 di4 Yuan Bao Ju|元寶炬 yuan2 bao3 ju4 535-551 Datong (大統 da4 tong3) 535-551
Fei Di|廢帝 fei4 di4 Yuan Qin|元欽 yuan2 qin1 552-554 Did not exist
Gong Di|恭帝 gong1 di4 Yuan Kuo|元廓 yuan2 kuo4 554-556 Did not exist
Bei (Northern) Zhou Dynasty 557-581
Convention: Bei (Northern) Zhou + posthumous name
Xiao Min Di|孝閔帝 xiao1 min3 di4 Yuwen Jue|宇文覺 yu3 wen2 jue2 557 Did not exist
Ming Di|明帝 ming2 di4 or Xiao Ming Di|孝明帝 xiao4 ming2 di4 Yuwen Yu|宇文毓 yu3 wen2 yu4 557-560 Wucheng (武成 wu3 cheng2) 559-560
Wu Di|武帝 wu3 di4 Yuwen Yong|宇文邕 yu3 wen2 yong1 561-578

Baoding (保定 bao3 ding4) 561-565
Tianhe (天和 tian1 he2) 566-572
Jiande (建德 jian4 de2) 572-578
Xuanzheng (宣政 xuan1 zheng4) 578

Xuan Di|宣帝 xuan1 di4 Yuwen Yun|宇文贇 yu3 wen2 yun1 579 Dacheng (大成 da4 cheng2) 579
Jing Di|靜帝 jing4 di4 Yuwen Chan|宇文闡 yu3 wen2 chan3 579-581

Daxiang (大象 da4 xiang4) 579-581
Dading (大定 da4 ding4) 581

Southern dynasty 420-589
Song Dynasty (420-479)
Convention: Song + posthumous name, sometimes except Liu Yu who was referred using personal name.
Wu Di|武帝 wu3 jing4 di4 Liu Yu|劉裕 liu3 yu4 420-422 Yongchu (永初 yong3 chu1) 420-422
Shao Di|少帝 shao4 di4 Liu Yi Fu|劉義符 liu3 yi4 fu2 423-424 Jingping (景平 jing3 ping2) 423-424
Wen Di|文帝 wen2 di4 Liu Yi Long|劉義隆 liu3 yi4 long2 424-453 Yuanjia (元嘉 yaun2 jia1) 424-453
Xiao Wu Di|孝武帝 xiao1 wu3 di4 Liu Jun|劉駿 liu3 jun4 454-464

Xiaojian (元嘉 xiao1 jian4) 454-456
Daming (大明 da4 ming2) 457-464

Qian Fei Di|前廢帝 qian2 fei4 di4 Liu Zi Ye|劉子業 liu3 zi5 ye4 465

Yongguang (永光 yong3 guang1) 465
Jinghe (景和 jing3 he2) 465

Ming Di|明帝 ming2 di4 Liu Yu|劉彧 liu3 yu4 465-472

Taishi (泰始 tai4 shi3) 465-471
Taiyu (泰豫 tai4 yu4) 472

Hou Fei Di|後廢帝 hou4 fei4 di4 or Cang Wu Wang|蒼梧王 cang1 wu2 wang2 Liu Yu|劉昱 liu3 yu4 473-477 Yuanhui (元徽 yuan2 hui1) 473-477
Shun Di|順帝 shun4 di4 Liu Zhun|劉準 liu3 zhun3 477-479 Shengming (昇明 sheng1 ming2) 477-479
Qi Dynasty 479-502
Convention: Qi + posthumous name
Gao Di|高帝 gao1 di4 Xiao Dao Cheng|蕭道成 xiao1 dao4 cheng2 479-482 Jianyuan (建元 jian4 yuan2) 479-482
Wu Di|武帝 wu3 jing4 di4 Xiao Ze|蕭賾 xiao1 ze2 483-493 Yongming (永明 yong3 ming2) 483-493
Yu Lin Wang|鬱林王 yu4 lin2 wang2 Xiao Zhao Ye|蕭昭業 xiao1 zhao1 ye4 494 Longchang (隆昌 long2 chang1) 494
Hai Ling Wang (海陵王 hai3 ling2 wang2) Xiao Zhao Wen|蕭昭文 xiao1 zhao1 wen2 494 Yanxing (延興 yan2 xing1) 494
Ming Di|明帝 ming2 di4 Xiao Luan|蕭鸞 xiao1 luan2 494-498

Jianwu (建武 jian4 wu3) 494-498
Yongtai (永泰 yong3 tai4) 498

Dong Hun Hou (東昏侯 dong1 hun1 hou2) Xiao Bao Juan|蕭寶卷 xiao1 bao3 juan3 499-501 Yongyuan (永元 yong3 yuan2) 499-501
He Di|和帝 he2 di4 Xiao Bao Rong|蕭寶融 xiao1 bao3 rong2 501-502 Zhongxing (中興 zhong1 xing1) 501-502
Liang Dynasty 502-557
Convention: Liang + posthumous name
Wu Di|武帝 wu3 jing4 di4 Xiao Yan|蕭衍 xiao1 yan3 502-549

Tianjian (天監 tian1 jian1) 502-519
Putong (普通 pu3 tong1) 520-527
Datong (大通 da4 tong1) 527-529
Zhongdatong (中大通 zhong1 da4 tong1) 529-534
Datong (大同 da4 tong2) 535-546
Zhongdatong (中大同 zhong1 da4 tong2) 546-547
Taiqing (太清 tai4 qing1) 547-549

Jian Wen Di (簡文帝 jian3 wen2 di4) Xiao Gang|蕭綱 xiao1 gang1 549-551 Dabao (大寶 da4 bao3) 550-551
Yu Zhang Wang (豫章王 yu4 zhang1 wang2) Xiao Dong|蕭棟 xiao1 dong4 551-552 Tianzheng (天正 tian1 zheng4) 551-552
Yuan Di (元帝 yuan2 di4) Xiao Yi|蕭繹 xiao1 yi4 552-555 Chengsheng (承聖 cheng2 sheng4) 552-555
Zhen Yang Hou (貞陽侯 zhen1 yang2 hou2) Xiao Yuan Ming|蕭淵明 xiao1 yuan1 ming2 555 Tiancheng (天成 tian1 cheng2) 555
Jing Di|敬帝 jing4 di4 Xiao Fang Zhi|蕭方智 xiao1 fang1 zhi4 555-557

Shaotai (紹泰 shao4 tai4) 555-556
Taiping (太平 tai4 ping2) 556-557

Chen Dynasty 557-589
Convention: Chen + posthumous name
Wu Di|武帝 wu3 di4 Chen Ba Xian|陳霸先 chen2 ba4 xian1 557-559 Yongding (永定 yong3 ding4) 557-559
Wen Di|文帝 wen2 di4 Chen Qian|陳蒨 chen2 qian4 560-566

Tianjia (天嘉 tian1 jia1) 560-566
Tiankang (天康 tian1 kang1) 566

Fei Di|廢帝 fei4 di4 Chen Bo Zong|陳伯宗 chen2 bo2 zong1 567-568 Guangda (光大 guang1 da4) 567-568
Xuan Di|宣帝 xuan1 di4 Chen Xu|陳頊 chen2 xu1 569-582 Taijian (太建 tai4 jian4) 569-582
Hou Zhu|後主 hou4 zhu3 Chen Shu Bao|陳叔寶 chen2 shu2 bao3 583-589

Zhide (至德 zhi4 de2) 583-586
Zhenming (禎明 zhen1 ming2) 587-589



Nan (Southern) Liang Dynasty 555-587
Temple Names ( Miao Hao 廟號 miao4 hao4) Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號 ) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
Convention: Nan (Southern) Liang + posthumous name
Note: some historians set Nan Liang as a continuation of the Liang Dynasty since it was founded by descendants of the Xiao's, the ruling family of the Liang Dynasty.
Zhong Zong (中宗 zhong1 zong1) Xuan Di|宣帝 xuan1 di4 Xiao Cha|蕭察 xiao1 cha2 555-562 Dading (大定 da4 ding4) 555-562
Shi Zong (世4宗 zhong1 zong1) Xiao Ming Di|孝明帝 xiao4 ming2 di4 Xiao Kui|蕭巋 xiao1 kui1 562-585 Tianbao (天保 tian1 bao3) 562-585
Did not exist Xiao Jing Di|孝靜帝 xiao4 jing4 di4 or Ju Gong|莒公 ju3 gong1 Xiao Cong|蕭琮 xiao1 cong2 585-587 Guangyun (廣運 guang3 yun4) 562-585

Sui Dynasty



Sui Dynasty 581-618
Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號 ) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
Convention: "Sui" + posthumous name
Wen Di 文帝 wen2 di4 Yang Jian|楊堅 yang2 jian1 581-604

Kaihuang (開皇 kai1 huang2) 581-600
Renshou (仁壽 ren2 shou4) 601-604

Yang Di 煬帝 yang2 di4 Yang Guang|楊廣 yang2 guang3 605-617 Daye (大業 da4 ye4) 605-617
Gong Di 恭帝 gong1 di4 Yang You|楊侑 yang2 you4 617-618 Yining (義寧 yi4 ning2) 617-618

Tang Dynasty



Tang Dynasty 618-690, 705-907
Temple Names ( Miao Hao 廟;號 ) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
Convention: "Tang" + temple name
Gao Zu (高祖 gao1 zu3) Li Yuan|李淵 li3 yuan1 618-626 Wude (武德 wu3 de2) 618-626
Tai Zong (太宗 tai4 zong1) Li Shi Min|李世民 li3 shi4 min2 627-649 Zhenguan (貞觀 zhen1 guan1) 627-649
Gao Zong (高宗 gao1 zong1) Li Zhi |李治 li3 zhi4 650-683

Yonghui (永徽 yong3 hui1) 650-655
Xianqing (顯慶 xian3 qing4) 656-661
Longshuo (龍朔 long2 shuo4) 661-663
Linde (麟德 lin2 de2) 664-665
Qianfeng (乾封 qian2 feng1) 666-668
Zongzhang (總章 zong3 zhang1) 668-670
Xianheng (咸亨 xian2 heng1) 670-674
Shangyuan (上元 shang4 yuan2) 674-676
Yifeng (儀鳳 yi2 feng4) 676-679
Tiaolu (調露 tiao2 lu4) 679-680
Yonglong (永隆 yong3 long2) 680-681
Kaiyao (開耀 kai1 yao4) 681-682
Yongchun (永淳 yong3 chun2) 682-683
Hongdao (弘道 hong2 dao4) 683

Zhong Zong (中宗 zhong1 zong1) Li Xian|李顯 li3 xian3 or Li Zhe|李哲 li3 zhe2 684, 705-710

Sisheng (嗣聖 si4 sheng4) 684
Shenlong (神龍 shen2 long2) 705-707
Jinglong (景龍 jing3 long2) 707-710<be>

Rui Zong (睿宗 rui4 zong1) Li Dan|李旦 li3 dan4 684, 710-712

Wenming (文明 wen2 ming2) 684
Jingyun (景雲 jing3 yun2) 710-711
Taiji (太極 tai4 ji2) 712
Yanhe (延和 yan2 he2) 712

Wu Hou (武后 wu3 hou4) Wu Ze Tian|武則天 wu3 ze2 tian1 684-705

Guangzhai (光宅 guang1 zhai2) 684
Chuigong (垂拱 chui2 gong3) 685-688
Yongchang (永昌 yong3 chang1) 689
Zaichu (載初 zai4 chu1) 690

Zhou Dynasty (690 AD - 705 AD)
Convention: use personal name
Wu Hou (武后 wu3 hou4) Wu Ze Tian|武則天 wu3 ze2 tian1 684-705

Tianshou (天授 tian1 shou4) 690-692
Ruyi (如意 ru2 yi4) 692
Changshou (長壽 chang2 shou4) 692-694
Yanzai (延載 yan2 zai4) 694
Zhengsheng (證聖 zheng4 sheng4) 695
Tiancewansui (天冊萬歲 tian1 ce4 wan4 sui4) 695-696
Wansuidengfeng (萬歲登封 wan4 sui4 deng1 feng1) 696
Wansuitongtian (萬歲通天 wan4 sui4 tong1 tian1) 696-697
Shengong (神功 shen2 gong1) 697
Shengli (聖曆 sheng4 li4) 698-700
Jiushi (久視 jiu3 shi4) 700
Daju (大足 da4 ju2) 701
Changan (長安 chang2 an1) 701-705

Continuation of Tang Dynasty
Shao Di (少帝 shao4 di4) see note below the table Li Chong Mao|李重茂 li3 chong2 mao4 710 Tanglong (唐隆 tang2 long2) 710
Xuan Zong (玄宗 xuan2 zong1) Li Long Ji|李隆基 li3 long2 ji1 712-756

Xiantian (先天 xian1 tian1) 712-713
Kaiyuan (開元 kai1 yuan2) 713-741
Tianbao (天寶 tian1 bao3) 742-756

Su Zong (肅宗 su4 zong1) Li Heng|李亨 li3 heng1 756-762

Jide (至德 zhi4 de2) 756-758
Qianyuan (乾元 qian2 yuan2) 758-760
Shangyuan (上元 shang4 yuan2) 760-761

Dai Zong (代宗 dai4 zong1) Li Yu|李豫 li3 yu4 762-779

Baoying (寶應 bao3 ying4) 762-763
Guangde (廣德 guang3 de2) 763-764
Yongtai (永泰 yong3 tai4) 765-766
Dali (大曆 da4 li4) 766-779

De Zong (德宗 de2 zong1) Li Gua|李适 li3 gua1 780-805

Jianzhong (建中 1jian4 zhong1) 780-783
Xingyuan (興元 xing1 yuan2) 784
Zhenyuan (貞元 zhen1 yuan2) 785-805

Shun Zong (順宗 shun4 zong1) Li Song|李誦 li3 song4 805 Yongzhen (永貞 yong3 zhen1) 805
Xian Zong (憲宗 xian4 zong1) Li Chun|李純 li3 chun2 806-820 Yuanhe (元和 yuan2 he2) 806-820
Mu Zong (穆宗 mu4 zong1) Li Heng|李恆 li3 heng2 821-824 Changqing (長慶 chang2 qing4) 821-824
Jing Zong (敬宗 jing4 zong1) Li Zhan|李湛 li3 zhan4 824-826 Baoli (寶曆 bao3 li4) 824-826
Wen Zong (文宗 wen2 zong1) Li Ang|李昂 li3 ang2 826-840

Baoli (寶曆 bao3 li4) 826
Dahe (大和 da4 he2) or Taihe (tai4 he2 太和) 827-835
Kaicheng (開成 kai1 cheng2) 836-840

Wu Zong (武宗 wu3 zong1) Li Yan|李炎 li3 yan2 840-846 Huichang (會昌 hui4 chang1) 841-846
Xuan Zong (宣宗 xuan1 zong1) Li Chen|李忱 li3 chen2 846-859 Dachong (大中 da4 chong1) 847-859
Yi Zong (懿宗 yi4 zong1) Li Cui|李漼 li3 cui3 859-873

Dachong (大中 da4 chong1) 859
Xiantong (咸通 xian2 tong1) 860-873

Xi Zong (僖宗 xi1 zong1) Li Xuan|李儇 li3 xuan1 873-888

Xiantong (咸通 xian2 tong1) 873-874
Qianfu (乾符 qian2 fu2) 874-879
Guangming (廣明 guang3 ming2) 880-881
Zhonghe (中和 zhong1 he2) 881-885
Guangqi (光啟 guang1 qi3) 885-888
Wende (文德 wen2 de2) 888

Zhao Zong (昭宗 zhao1 zong1) Li Ye|李曄 li3 ye4 888-904

Longji (龍紀 long2 ji4) 889
Dashun (大順 da4 shun4) 890-891
Jingfu (景福 jing3 fu2) 892-893
Qianning (乾寧 qian2 ning2) 894-898
Guanghua (光化 guang1 hua4) 898-901
Tianfu (天復 tian1 fu4) 901-904
Tianyou (天佑 tian1 you4) 904

Ai Di (哀帝 ai1 di4) or 昭宣帝 zhao1 xuan1 di4 see note below Li Zhu|李柷 li3 zhu4 904-907 Tianyou (天佑 tian1 you4) 904-907

Shao Di (少帝 shao4 di4), Ai Di (哀帝 ai1 di4) and 昭宣帝 zhao1 xuan1 di4 are posthumous names. A new column for only three commonly used posthumous names was not be created since other Tang emperors are commonly referred using temple names.

Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms



Sovereigns in Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms 907-960
Temple Names ( Miao Hao 廟號 miao4 hao4) Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號 ) Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
the Five Dynasties
Convention: name of dynasty + temple name or posthumous name
Hou (Later) Liang Dynasty 907-923
Tai Zu|太祖 tai4 zu3 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Zhu Wen|朱溫 zhu1 wen1 907-912

Kaiping (開平 kai1 ping2) 907-911
Qianhua (乾化 qian2 hua4) 911-912

Did not exist Mo Di |末帝 mo4 di4 Zhu Zhen|朱瑱 zhu1 zhen4 913-923

Qianhua (乾化 qian2 hua4) 913-9115
Zhenming (貞明 zhen1 ming2) 915-921 Longde (龍德 long2 de2) 921-923

Hou (Later) Tang Dynasty 923-936
Zhuang Zong|莊宗 zhuang1 zong1 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Li Cun Xu|李存勗 li3 cun2 xu4 923-926 Tongguang (同光 tong2 guang1) 923-926
Ming Zong|明宗 ming2 zong1 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Li Si Yuan|李嗣源 li3 si4 yuan2 or Li Dan|李亶 li3 dan3 926-933

Tiancheng (天成 tian1 cheng2) 926-930
Changxing (長興 chang2 xing1) 930-933

Did not exist Min Di|節閔帝 min3 di4 Li Cong Xu|李從厚 li3 cong2 hou4 933-934 Yingshun (應順 ying4 shun4) 913-9115
Did not exist Mo Di |末帝 mo4 di4 Li Cong Ke|李從珂 li3 cong2 ke1 934-936 Qingtai (清泰 qing1 tai4) 934-936
Hou (Later) Jin Dynasty 936-947
Gao Zu|高祖 gao1 zu3 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Shi Jing Tang|石敬瑭 shi4 jing4 tang2 936-942 Tianfu (天福 tian1 fu2) 936-942
Did not exist Chu Di|出帝 chu1 di4 Shi Chong Gui|石重貴 shi4 chong2 gui4 942-947

Tianfu (天福 tian1 fu2) 942-944
Kaiyun (開運 kai1 yun4) 944-947

Hou (Later) Han Dynasty 936-947
Gao Zu|高祖 gao1 zu3 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Liu Zhi Yuan|劉知遠 liu3 zhi1 yuan3 947-948

Tianfu (天福 tian1 fu2) 947
Qianyou (乾祐 qian2 you4) 948

Did not exist Yin Di|隱帝 yin3 di4 Liu Cheng You|劉承祐 liu3 cheng2 you4 948-950 Qianyou (乾祐 qian2 you4) 948-950
Hou (Later) Zhou Dynasty 951-960
Tai Zu|太祖 tai4 zu3 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Guo Wei|郭威 guo1 wei1 951-954

Guangshun (廣順 guang3 shun4) 951-954
Xiande (顯德 xian3 de2) 954

Shi Zong (世宗 shi4 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Chai Rong|柴榮 chai2 rong2 954-959 Xiande (顯德 xian3 de2) 954-959
Did not exist Gong Di|恭帝 gong1 di4 Chai Zong Xun|柴宗訓 chai2 zong1 xun4 959-960 Xiande (顯德 xian3 de2) 959-960
the Ten Kingdoms
Convention: use personal names, noticed otherwise
Wu Yue Kingdom 904-978
Tai Zu|太祖 tai4 zu3 Wu Su Wang|武肅王 wu3 su4 wang2 Qian Liu|錢鏐 qian2 liu2 904-932

Tianbao (天寶 tian1 bao3) 908-923
Baoda (寶大 bao3 da4) 923-925
Baozheng (寶正 bao3 zheng4) 925-932

Shi Zong (世宗 shi4 zong1) Wen Mu Wang|文穆王 wen2 mu4 wang2 Qian Yuan Quan|錢元瓘 qian2 yuan2 guan4 932-941 Did not exist
Cheng Zong 成宗 cheng2 zong1) Zhong Xian Wang|忠獻王 zhong1 xian4 wang2 Qian Zuo|錢佐 qian2 zuo3 941-947 Did not exist
Did not exist Zhong Xun Wang|忠遜王 zhong1 xun4 wang2 Qian Zong|錢倧 qian2 zong1 947 Did not exist
Did not exist Zhong Yi Wang|忠懿王 zhong1 yi4 wang2 Qian Chu|錢俶 qian2 chu4 947-978 Did not exist
Min Kingdom 909-945 including Yin Kingdom 943-945
Tai Zu|太祖 tai4 zu3 Zhong Yi Wang|忠懿王 zhong1 yi4 wang2 Wang Shen Zhi|王審知 wang2 shen3 zhi1 909-925 Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist Wang Yan Han|王延翰 wang2 yan2 han4 925-926 Did not exist
Tai Zong (太宗 tai4 zong1) Hui Di (惠帝 hui4 di4) Wang Yan Jun|王延鈞 wang2 yan2 jun1 926-935

Longqi (龍啟 long2 qi3) 933-935

Yonghe (永和 yong3 he2) 935
Kang Zong (康宗 kang1 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Wang Ji Peng|王繼鵬 wang2 ji4 peng2 935-939 Tongwen (通文 tong1 wen2) 936-939
Jing Zong (景宗 jing3 zong1) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Wang Yan Xi|王延羲 wang2 yan2 xi1 939-944 Yonglong (永隆 yong3 long2) 939-944
Did not exist Tian De Di (天德帝 tian1 de2 di4) (as Emperor of Yin) Wang Yan Zheng|王延政 wang2 yan2 zheng4 943-945 Tiande (天德 tian1 de2) 943-945
Jing Nan or Nan Ping Kingdom 906-963
Did not exist Wu Xin Wang|武信王 wu3 xin4 wang2 Gao Ji Xing|高季興 gao1 ji4 xing1 909-928 Did not exist
Did not exist Wen Xian Wang|文獻王 wen2 xin4 wang2 Gao Cong Hui|高從誨 gao1 cong2 hui4 928-948 Did not exist
Did not exist Zhen Yi Wang|貞懿王 yi4 wang2 Gao Bao Rong|高寶融 gao1 bao3 rong2 948-960 Did not exist
Did not exist Shi Zhong|侍中 shi4 zhong1 Gao Bao Xu|高寶勗 gao1 bao3 xu4 960-962 Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist Gao Ji Chong|高繼沖 gao1 ji4 chong1 962-963 Did not exist
Chu Kingdom 897-951
Did not exist Wu Mo Wang|武穆王 wu3 mo4 wang2 Ma Yin|馬殷 ma3 yin1 897-930 Did not exist
Did not exist Heng Yang Wang|衡陽王 heng2 yang2 wang2 Ma Xi Sheng|馬希聲 ma3 xi1 sheng1 930-932 Did not exist
Did not exist Wen Zhao Wang|文昭王 wen2 zhao1 wang2 Ma Xi Fan|馬希範 ma3 xi1 fan4 932-947 Did not exist
Did not exist Fei Wang|廢王 fei4 wang2 Ma Xi Guang|馬希廣 ma3 xi1 guang3 947-950 Did not exist
Did not exist Gong Xiao Wang|恭孝王 gong1 xiao4 wang2 Ma Xi E|馬希萼 ma3 xi1 e4 950 Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist Ma Xi Chong|馬希崇 ma3 xi1 chong2 950-951 Did not exist
Wu Kingdom 904-937
Tai Zu|太祖 tai4 zu3 Xiao Wu Di|孝武帝 xiao4 wu3 di4 Yang Xing Mi|楊行密 yang2 xing2 mi4 904-905 Tianyao (天祐 tian1 you4) 904-905
Lie Zong|烈宗 lie4 zong1 Jing Di|景帝 jing3 di4 Yang Wo|楊渥 yang2 wo4 905-908 Tianyao (天祐 tian1 you4) 905-908
Gao Zu|高祖 gao1 zu3 Xuan Di|宣帝 xuan1 di4 Yang Long Yan|楊隆演 yang2 long2 yan3 908-921

Tianyao (天祐 tian1 you4) 908-919

Wuyi (武義 wu3 yi4) 919-921
Did not exist Rui Di|睿帝 rui4 di4 Yang Pu|楊溥 yang2 pu3 921-937

Shunyi (順義 shun4 yi4) 921-927
Qianzhen (乾貞 qian2 zhen1) 927-929
Dahe (大和 da4 he2) 929-935
Tianzuo (天祚 tian1 zuo4) 935-937

Nan (Southern) Tang Kingdom 937-975
Convention for this kingdom only : Nan (Southern) Tang + posthumous names. Hou Zhu was referred to as Li Hou Zhu|李後主 li3 hou4 zhu3.
Xian Zhu|先主 xian1 zhu3 or Lie Zu|烈祖 lie4 zu3 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Li Bian|李(曰 on top of 弁) li3 bian4 937-943 Shengyuan (昇元 sheng1 yuan2) 937-943
Zhong Zhu|中主 zhong1 zhu3 or Yuan Zong|元宗 yuan2 zong1 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Li Jing|李璟 li3 jing3 943-961

Baoda (保大 bao3 da4) 943-958
Jiaotai (交泰 jiao1 tai4) 958
Zhongxing (中興 zhong1 xing1) 958

Hou Zhu|後主 hou4 zhu3 Wu Wang|武王 wu3 wang2 Li Yu|李煜 li3 yu4 961-975 Did not exist
Nan (Southern) Han Kingdom 917-971
Gao Zu|高祖 gao1 zu3 Tian Huang Da Di|天皇大帝 tian1 huang2 da4 di4 Liu Yan|劉巖 liu3 yan2 or Liu Yan|劉(龍 on top of 天) liu3 yan3 917-925

Qianheng (乾亨 qian2 heng1) 917-925
Bailong (白龍 bai2 long2) 925-928
Dayou (大有 da4 you3) 928-941

Did not exist Shang Di|殤帝 shang1 di4 Liu Fen|劉玢 liu3 fen1 941-943 Guangtian (光天 guag1 tian1) 941-943
Zhong Zong|中宗 zhong1 zong1 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Liu Cheng|劉晟 liu3 cheng2 943-958

Yingqian (應乾 ying4 qian2) 943
Qianhe (乾和 qian4 he2) 943-958

Hou Zhu|後主 hou4 zhu3 Did not exist Liu Chang|劉鋹 liu3 chang3 958-971 Dabao (大寶 da4 bao3) 958-971
Bei (Northern) Han Kingdom 951-979
Shi Zu|世祖 shi4 zu3 Shen Wu Di|神武帝 shen2 wu3 di4 Liu Min|劉旻 liu3 min2 951-954 Qianyou (乾祐 qian2 you4) 951-954
Rui Zong|睿宗 rui4 zong1 Xiao He Di|孝和帝 xiao4 he2 di4 Liu Cheng Jun|劉承鈞 liu3 cheng2 jun1 954-970

Qianyou (乾祐 qian2 you4) 954-957
Tianhui (天會 tian1 hui4) 957-970

Shao Zhu|少主 shao4 zhu3 Did not exist Liu Ji En|劉繼恩 liu3 ji4 en1 970 Did not exist
Did not exist
Ying Wu Di|英武帝 ying1 wu3 di4 Liu Ji Yuan|劉繼元 liu3 ji4 yuan2 970-982 Guangyun (廣運 guang3 yun4) 970-982
Qian (Former) Shu Kingdom 907 - 925
Gao Zu|高祖 gao1 zu3 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Wang Jian|王建 wang2 jian4 907-918

Tianfu (天復 tian1 fu4) 907
Wucheng (武成 wu3 cheng22) 908-910
Yongping (永平 yong3 ping2) 911-915
Tongzheng (通正 tong1 zheng4) 916
Tianhan (天漢 tian1 han4) 917
Guangtian (光天 guang1 tian1) 918

Hou Zhu|後主 hou4 zhu3 Did not exist Wang Yan|王衍 wang2 yan3 918-925

Qiande (乾德 qian2 de2) 918-925
Xiankang (咸康 xian2 kang1) 925

Hou (Later) Shu Kingdom 934 - 965
Gao Zu|高祖 gao1 zu3 Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Meng Zhi Xiang|孟知祥 meng4 zhi1 xiang2 934 Mingde (明德 ming2 de2) 934
Hou Zhu|後主 hou4 zhu3 Did not exist Meng Chang|孟昶 meng4 chang3 938-965

Mingde (明德 ming2 de2) 934-938
Guangzheng (廣政 guang3 zheng4) 938-965

Independent Regimes during Ten Kingdoms



local independent regimes during Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period but traditionally not counted in the Ten Kingdoms
Name of Posts Personal Names Period on post
Wuping and Hunan 節度|jie2 du4 (similar to thema of the Byzantine Empire) 950-963
Wuping strategos (correct English translation?)|武平節度使 wu3 ping2 jie2 du4 shi3 Liu Yan|劉言 liu3 yan2 950-953
Wuping strategos (correct English translation?)|武平節度使 wu3 ping2 jie2 du4 shi3 Wang Kui|王逵 wang2 kui2 or Wang Jin Kui|王進逵 wang2 jin4 kui2 953-956
Hunan strategos (correct English translation?)|湖南節度使 hu2 nan2 jie2 du4 shi3 Zhou Xing Feng|周行逢 zhao1 xing2 feng2 956-962
Hunan strategos (correct English translation?)|湖南節度使 hu2 nan2 jie2 du4 shi3 Zhou Bao Quan|周保權 zhao1 bao3 quan2 962-963
Quanzhang 節度|jie2 du4 (similar to thema of the Byzantine Empire) 945-978
Quanzhang strategos (correct English translation?)|泉漳都指揮使 quan2 zhang1 du1 zhi3 hui1 shi3 Liu Cong Xiao|留從效 liu2 cong2 xiao4 945-962
Quanzhang strategos (correct English translation?)|泉漳留守 quan2 zhang1 liu2 shou3 Liu Shao Zi|留紹鎡 liu2 shao4 zi1 962
Quanzhang strategos (correct English translation?)|泉漳節度使 quan2 zhang1 jie2 du4 shi3 Zhang Han Si|張漢思 zhang1 han4 si1 962-963
Quanzhang strategos (correct English translation?)|泉漳節度使 quan2 zhang1 jie2 du4 shi3 Chen Hong Jin|陳洪進 chen2 hong2 jin4 963-978

Liao Dynasty



Liao Dynasty 907-1125
Temple Names ( Miao Hao 廟號 mioho) Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號 shho) Born Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號 ninho) and their according range of years
Convention: "Liao" + temple name except Liao Tianzuodi who is referred using "Liao" + posthumous name
Taizu (太祖 Tizǔ) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Yel Abaoji (耶律阿保機 Yēlǜ Ābǎojī) 907-926 Shence (神冊 Shnc) 916-922

Tianzan (天贊 Tiānzn) 922-926
Tianxian (天顯 Tiānxiǎn) 926

Taizong (太宗 Tizōng) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Yel Deguang|耶律德光 Yēlǜ Dguāng 926-947 Tianxian (天顯 Tiānxiǎn) 927-938

Huitong (會同 Hutng) 938-947
Datong (大同 Dtng) 947

Shizong (世宗 Shzōng) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Yel Ruan|耶律阮 Yēlǜ Ruǎn 947-951 Tianlu (天祿 Tiānl) 947-951
Muzong (穆宗 Mzōng) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Yel Jing|耶律璟 Yēlǜ Jǐng 951-969 Yingli (應曆 Yngl) 951-969
Jingzong (景宗 Jǐngzōng) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Yel Xian|耶律賢 Yēlǜ Xin 969-982 Baoning (保寧 Bǎonng) 969-979

Qianheng (乾亨 Qinhēng) 979-982

Shengzong (聖宗 Shngzōng) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Yel Longxu|耶律隆緒 Yēlǜ Lngx 982-1031 Qianheng (乾亨 Qinhēng) 982

Tonghe (統和 Tǒngh) 983-1012
Kaitai (開泰 Kāiti) 1012-1021
Taiping (太平 Tipng) 1021-1031

Xingzong (興宗 Xīngzōng) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Yel Zongzhen|耶律宗真 Yēlǜ Zōngzhēn 1031-1055 Jingfu (景福 Jǐngf) 1031-1032

Chongxi (重熙 Chngxī) 1032-1055

Daozong (道宗 Dozōng) Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign Yel Hongji|耶律洪基 Yēlǜ Hngjī 1055-1101 Qingning (清寧 Qīngnng) 1055-1064

Xianyong (咸雍 Xinyōng) 1065-1074
Taikang (太康 Tikāng) or Dakang (大康 Dkāng) 1075-1084
Da'an (大安 D'ān) 1085-1094
Shouchang (壽昌 Shuchāng) or Shoulong (壽隆 Shulng) 1095-1101

Did not exist Tianzuodi (天祚帝 Tiānzud) Yel Yanxi|耶律延禧 Yēlǜ Ynxǐ 1101-1125 Qiantong (乾統 Qintǒng) 1101-1110

Tianqing (天慶 Tiānqng) 1111-1120
Baoda (保大 Bǎod) 1121-1125

Song Dynasty



Song dynasty 960-1279
Temple Names ( Miao Hao 廟號 Mio Ho) Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號 ) Born Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
Convention: "Song" + temple name or posthumous name except last emperor who was revered as Song Di Bing (宋帝昺 Sng D Bǐng)
Bei (Northern) Song dynasty, 960- 1127
Taizu (太祖 Tizǔ) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Kuangyin (趙匡胤 Zho Kuāngyn) 960-976 Jianlong (建隆 Jinlng) 960-963

Qiande (乾德 Qind) 963-968
Kaibao (開寶 Kāibǎo) 968-976

Taizong (太宗 Tizōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Kuangyi (趙匡義 Zho Kuāngy) or Zhao Guangyi (趙光義 Zho Guāngy) 976-997 Taipingxingguo (太平興國 Tipngxīnggu) 976-984

Yongxi (雍熙 Yōngxī) 984-987
Duangong (端拱 Duāngǒng) 988-989
Chunhua (淳化 Chnhu) 990-994
Zhidao (至道 Zhdo) 995-997

Zhenzong (真宗 Zhēnzōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Heng (趙恆 Zho Hng) 997-1022 Xianping (咸平 Xinpng) 998-1003

Jingde (景德 Jǐngd) 1004-1007
Dazhongxiangfu (大中祥符 Dzhōngxingf) 1008-1016
Tianxi (天禧 Tiānxǐ) 1017-1021
Qianxing (乾興 Qinxīng) 1022

Renzong (仁宗 Rnzōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Zhen (趙禎 Zho Zhēn) 1022-1063 Tiansheng (天聖 Tiānshng) 1023-1032

Mingdao (明道 Mngdo) 1032-1033
Jingyou (景祐 Jǐngyu) 1034-1038
Baoyuan (寶元 Bǎoyun) 1038-1040
Kangding (康定 Kāngdng) 1040-1041
Qingli (慶曆 Qngl) 1041-1048
Huangyou (皇祐 Hungyu) 1049-1054
Zhihe (至和 Zhh) 1054-1056
Jiayou (嘉祐 Jiāyu) 1056-1063

Yingzong (英宗 Yīngzōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Shu (趙曙 Zho Sh) 1063-1067 Zhiping (治平 Zhpng) 1064-1067
Shenzong (神宗 Shnzōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Xu (趙頊 Zho Xū) 1067-1085 Xining (熙寧 Xīnng) 1068-1077

Yuanfeng (元豐 Yunfēng) 1078-1085

Zhezong (哲宗 Zhzōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Xu (趙煦 Zho Xǔ) 1085-1100 Yuanyou (元祐 Yunyu) 1086-1094

Shaosheng (紹聖 Shoshng) 1094-1098
Yuanfu (元符 Yunf) 1098-1100

Huizong (徽宗 Huīzōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Ji (趙佶 Zho J) 1100-1125 Jianzhongjingguo (建中靖國 Jinzhōngjnggu) 1101

Chongning (崇寧 Chngnng) 1102-1106
Daguan (大觀 Dguān) 1107-1110
Zhenghe (政和 Zhngh) 1111-1118
Chonghe (重和 Chngh) 1118-1119
Xuanhe (宣和 Xuānh) 1119-1125

Qinzong (欽宗 Qīnzōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Huan (趙桓 Zho Hun) 1126-1127 Jingkang (靖康 Jngkāng) 1125-1127
Nan (Southern) Song dynasty, 1127- 1279
Gaozong (高宗 Gāozōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Gou (趙構 Zho Gu) 1127-1162 Jingyan (靖炎 Jngyn) 1127-1130

Shaoxing (紹興 Shoxīng) 1131-1162

Xiaozong (孝宗 Xiozōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Shen (趙昚 Zho Shn) 1162-1189 Longxing (隆興 Lngxīng) 1163-1164

Qiandao (乾道 Qindo) 1165-1173
Chunxi (淳熙 Chnxī) 1174-1189

Guangzong (光宗 Guāngzōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Dun (趙惇 Zho Dūn) 1189-1194 Shaoxi (紹熙 Shoxī) 1190-1194
Ningzong (寧宗 Nngzōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Kuo (趙擴 Zho Ku) 1194-1224 Qingyuan (慶元 Qngyun) 1195-1200

Jiatai (嘉泰 Jiāti) 1201-1204
Kaixi (開禧 Kāixǐ) 1205-1207
Jiading (嘉定 Jiādng) 1208-1224

Lizong (理宗 Lǐzōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Yun (趙昀 Zho Yn) 1224-1264 Baoqing (寶慶 Bǎoqng) 1225-1227

Shaoding (紹定 Shodng) 1228-1233
Duanping (端平 Duānpng) 1234-1236
Jiaxi (嘉熙 Jiāxī) 1237-1240
Chunyou (淳祐 Chnyu) 1241-1252
Baoyou (寶祐 Bǎoyu) 1253-1258
Kaiqing (開慶 Kāiqng) 1259
Jingding (景定 Jǐngdng) 1260-1264

Duzong (度宗 Dzōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Qi (趙祺 Zho Q) 1264-1274 Xianchun (咸淳 Xinchn) 1265-1274
did not exist Gong Di (恭帝 Gōngd) Zhao Xian (趙顯 Zho Xiǎn) 1274-1276 Deyou (德祐 Dyu) 1275-1276
Duan Zong (端宗 Duān Zōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Zhao Shi (趙是 Zho Sh) 1276-1278 Jingyan (景炎 Jǐngyn) 1276-1278
did not exist Di (帝 D) or Wei Wang (衛王 Wiwng) Zhao Bing (趙昺 Zho Bǐng) 1278-1279 Xiangxing (祥興 Xingxīng) 1278-1279

Western Xia



Western Xia 1032-1227
Temple names Posthumous names Chinese family name and first names Reigns Era names and their according durations
Chinese convention: "Western Xia" + temple name or "family name + first names"
Jǐngzōng
(景宗)
Wǔlid
(武烈帝)
Lǐ Yunho
(李元昊)
1032-1048 Xiǎndo (顯道) 1032-1034

Kāiyn (開運) 1034
Guǎngpng (廣平) 1035-1036
Dqng (大慶) 1036-1038
Tiānshulǐfǎynzu (天授禮法延祚) 1038-1048

Yzōng
(毅宗)
Zhāoyīngd
(昭英帝)
Lǐ Lingzu
(李諒祚)
1048-1067 Ynsnnggu (延嗣寧國) 1048-1049

Tiānyuchushng (天祐垂聖) 1050-1052
Fshngchngdo (福聖承道) 1053-1056
Duǒdū (奲都) 1036-1038
Gǒnghu (拱化) 1063-1067

Huzōng
(惠宗)
Kāngjngd
(康靖帝)
Lǐ Bǐngchng
(李秉常)
1067-1086 Qindo (乾道) 1067-1069

Tiānclǐshngguqng (天賜禮盛國慶) 1070-1074
D'ān (大安) 1075-1085
Tiān'ānlǐdng (天安禮定) 1085-1086

Chngzōng
(崇宗)
Shngwnd
(聖文帝)
Lǐ Qinshn
(李乾順)
1086-1139 Tiānyzhpng (天儀治平) 1086-1089

Tiānyumn'ān (天祐民安) 1090-1097
Yǒng'ān (永安) 1098-1100
Zhēnguān (貞觀) 1101-1113
Yōngnng (雍寧) 1114-1118
Yund (元德) 1119-1127
Zhngd (正德) 1127-1134
Dd (大德) 1135-1139

Rnzōng
(仁宗)
Shngzhēnd
(聖禎帝)
Lǐ Rnxio
(李仁孝)
1139-1193 Dqng (大慶) 1139-1143

Rnqng (人慶) 1144-1148
Tiānshng (天盛) 1149-1170
Qinyu (乾祐) 1170-1193

Hunzōng
(桓宗)
Zhāojiǎnj
(昭簡帝)
Lǐ Chnyu
(李純佑)
1193-1206 Tiānqng (天慶) 1193-1206
Xiāngzōng
(襄宗)
Jǐngwǔd
(景武帝)
Lǐ Ānqun
(李安全)
1206-1211 Qngtiān (慶天) 1206-1209

Hungjin (皇建) 1210-1211

Shnzōng
(神宗)
Yīngwnd
(英文帝)
Lǐ Zūnxū
(李遵頊)
1211-1223 Guāngdng (光定) 1211-1223
Xinzōng
(獻宗)
Did not exist Lǐ Dwng
(李德旺)
1223-1226 Qindng (乾定) 1223-1226
Mzhǔ
(末主)
Did not exist Lǐ Xin
(李晛)
1226-1227 Bǎoy (寶義) 1226-1227

Jin Dynasty




Jin Dynasty 1115-1234
Temple Name
Miao Hao
廟號
mioho
Posthumous Name
Shi Hao
諡號
shho
Birth Name
 
姓名
xngmng
Years of
Reign
Era Name
Nian Hao
年號
ninho
and Years
Convention: "Jin" + temple name or posthumous name
Tizǔ
太祖
(1) Wnyn Āgǔdǎ
完顏阿骨打
1115-1123 Shōugu
收國
1115-1116
 

Tiānfǔ
天輔
1117-1123

Tizōng
太宗
(1) Wnyn Wqǐmǎi
完顏吳乞買
or
Wnyn (Shng or Chng)
完顏晟
1123-1134 Tiānhu
天會
1123-1134
Xīzōng
熙宗
(1) Wnyn Hl
完顏合剌
or
Wnyn Dǎn
完顏亶
1135-1149 Tiānhu
天會
1135-1138
 

Tiānjun
天眷
1138-1141
 
Hungtǒng
皇統
1141-1149

(2) Hǎilngwng
海陵王
Wnyn Ling
完顏亮
1149-1161 Tiānd
天德
1149-1153
 

Zhnyun
貞元
1153-1156
 
Zhnglng
正隆
1156-1161

Shzōng
世宗
(1) Wnyn Yōng
完顏雍
1161-1189 Ddng
大定
1161-1189
Zhāngzōng
章宗
(1) Wnyn Jǐng
完顏璟
1190-1208 Mngchāng
明昌
1190-1196
 

Chng'ān
承安
1196-1200
 
Tih
泰和1200-1208

(2) Wishowng
衛紹王
or
Wiwng
衛王
Wnyn Yǒngj
完顏永濟
1209-1213 D'ān
大安
1209-1212
 

Chngqng
崇慶
1212-1213
 
Zhnng
至寧
1213

Xuānzōng
宣宗
(1) Wnyn Xn
完顏珣
1213-1223 Zhēnyu
貞祐
1213-1217
 

Xīngdng
興定
1217-1222
 
Yunguāng
元光
1222-1223

Āizōng
哀宗
(1) Wnyn Shǒux
完顏守緒
1224-1234 Zhngd
正大
1224-1232
 

Kāixīng
開興
1232
 
Tiānxīng
天興
1232-1234

(2)
Md
末帝
Wnyn Chngln
完顏承麟
1234 (2)

(1) Quite long and thus not used when referring to this sovereign.
(2) Did not exist

Yuan Dynasty



Temple names Posthumous names Khan Names Given names Period of Reigns Era names and their according range of years
Convention: use first name (e.g. Temujin) or Khan names for khans before Kublai Khan. Use "Yuan" + temple name or posthumous name after. A mix of the three for Kublai Khan.
Note:
1) all first names of the sovereigns were those more familiar to western readers.
2) Timur or Temr means the same Mongolian words but Temr will be used for avoiding confusion with the Timur (Timurlane or Tamerlane) who attempted to restore the Mongolian Empire in Central Asia.
Taizu (太祖 Tizǔ) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Genghis Khan Borjigin Temujin (孛兒只斤鐵木真 Bi'rzhījīn Tiěmzhēn) 1206-1227 did not exist
Ruizong (睿宗 Ruzōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign ? Borjigin Tolui (孛兒只斤拖雷 Bi'rzhījīnTuōli) 1228 did not exist
Taizong (太宗 Tizōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign gedei Khan Borjigin gedei (孛兒只斤窩闊台 Bi'rzhījīn Wōkuti) 1229-1241 did not exist
did not exist did not exist   Tregene Khtn (乃馬真 Nǎimǎzhēn) regent 1241-1246 did not exist
Dingzong (定宗 Dngzōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Gyk Khan Borjigin Gyk (孛兒只斤貴由 Bi'rzhījīn Guyu) 1246-1248 did not exist
did not exist did not exist ? Oghul Ghaymish (海米失 Hǎimǐshī) regent 1248-1251 did not exist
Xianzong (憲宗 Xinzōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Mngke Khan Borjigin Mngke (孛兒只斤蒙哥 Bi'rzhījīn Mnggē) 1251-1259 did not exist
Shizu (世祖 Shzǔ) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Kublai Khan Borjigin Kublai (孛兒只斤忽必烈 Bi'rzhījīn Hūbli) 1260-1294 Zhongtong (中統 Zhōngtǒng) 1260-1264

Zhiyuan (至元 Zhyun) 1264-1294

Chengzong (成宗 Chngzōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Temr ljeyt Khn Borjigin Temr (孛兒只斤鐵木耳 Bi'rzhījīn Tiěm'ěr) 1294-1307 Yuanzhen (元貞 Yunzhēn) 1295-1297

Dade (大德 Dd) 1297-1307

Wuzong (武宗 Wǔzōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Qayshan Glk Borjigin Qayshan (孛兒只斤海山 Bi'rzhījīn Hǎishān) 1308-1311 Zhida (至大 Zhd) 1308-1311
Renzong (仁宗 Rnzōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Ayurparibhadra Borjigin Ayurparibhadra (孛兒只斤愛育黎拔力八達 Bi'rzhījīn iylblbād) 1311-1320 Huangqing (皇慶 Hungqng) 1312-1313

Yanyou (延祐 Ynyu) 1314-1320

Yingzong (英宗 Yīngzōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Suddhipala Gege'en Borjigin Suddhipala (孛兒只斤碩德八剌 Bi'rzhījīn Shudbāl) 1321-1323 Zhizhi (至治 Zhzh) 1321-1323
Convention: for the following sovereign only, use "yuan" + posthumous name, i.e. 元泰定帝 Yun Ti Dng D.
Jinzong (晉宗 Jnzōng) Taiding Di (泰定帝 Tidng D) Yesn-Temr Borjigin Yesn-Temr (孛兒只斤也孫鐵木兒 Bi'rzhījīn Yěsūntiěmr) 1323-1328 Taiding (泰定 Tidng) 1321-1328
Zhihe (致和 Zhh) 1328
did not exist Tianshun Di (天順帝 Tiānshn D) Arigaba Borjigin Arigaba (孛兒只斤阿速吉八 Bi'rzhījīn Āsjbā) 1328 Tianshun (天順 Tiānshn) 1328
Wenzong (文宗 Wnzōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Jijaghatu Toq-Temr Borjigin Toq-Temr (孛兒只斤圖鐵木兒 Bi'rzhījīn Ttiěmr) 1328-1329 and 1329-1332 Tianli (天曆 Tiānl) 1328-1330
Zhishun (至順 Zhshn) 1330-1332
Mingzong (明宗 Mngzōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Qoshila Qutuqtu Borjigin Qoshila (孛兒只斤和世剌 Bi'rzhījīn Hshl) 1329 did not exist
Ningzong (寧宗 Nngzōng) too tedious; thus, not used when referring to this sovereign Irinchibal Borjigin Irinchibal (孛兒只斤懿璘質班 Bi'rzhījīn Ylnzhbān) 1332 Zhishun (至順 Zhshn) 1332
Convention: for the following sovereign only, use "yuan" + posthumous name.
Huizong (惠宗 Huzōng) Shundi (順帝 Shnd) Toghan-Temr Borjigin Toghan-Temr (孛兒只斤妥懽鐵木兒 Bi'rzhījīn Tuǒhuān Tiěmr) 1333-1370

Zhishun (至順 Zhshn) 1333
Yuantong (元統 Yuntǒng) 1333-1335
Zhiyuan (至元 Zhyun) 1335-1340
Zhizheng (至正 Zhzhng) 1341-1368
Zhiyuan (至元 Zhyun) 1368-1370



Yuan Dynasty (after expelled from China by Ming in 1368) 1368 - mid 15th century
Temple Names (Miao Hao 廟號 Mio Ho) Posthumous Names (Shi Hao 諡號) Khan Names Born Names Period of Reigns Era Names (Nian Hao 年號) and their according range of years
Convention: use khan names or born names.
Note: 1) all first names of the sovereigns were those more familiar to western readers. 2) Timur or Temr means the same Mongolian words but Temr will be used for avoiding confusion with the Timur (Timurlane or Tamerlane) who attempted to restore the Mongolian Empire in Central Asia.
Convention: for the following sovereign only, use "yuan" + posthumous name.
Huizong (惠宗 Huzōng) (same person as the last Yuan emperor in China) Shundi (順帝 Shnd) Toghan-Temr Borjigin Toghan-Temr (孛兒只斤妥懽鐵木兒 Bi'rzhījīn Tuǒhuān Tiěmr) 1333-1370

Zhishun (至順 Zhshn) 1333
Yuantong (元統 Yuntǒng) 1333-1335
Zhiyuan (至元 Zhyun) 1335-1340
Zhizheng (至正 Zhzhng) 1341-1368
Zhiyuan (至元 Zhyun) 1368-1370

Zhaozong (昭宗 Zhāozōng) did not exist Biligt Khan Ayushiridara of the Borjigin clan(孛兒只斤愛育識里達臘 Bi'rzhījīn iyshlǐdl) 1370-1378 Xuanguang (宣光 Xuānguāng) 1371-1378
did not exist did not exist Usakhal Khan Tgs Temr of the Borjigin clan (孛兒只斤脫古思鐵木兒 Bi'rzhījīn Tuōgǔsī Tiěmr) 1378-1387 Tianguang (天光 Tiānguāng) 1378-1387
Note: ....5 more khans before the Bei-Er-Zhi-Jin family stepped down from the khan throne....

Ming dynasty

To see the Ming dynasty emperors on a separate page, check here.

Personal Name Posthumous name1
(short form)
Temple name1 Reign name Reign years Name by which
most commonly known
Zhū Yunzhāng
朱元璋
Gāod
高帝
Tizǔ
太祖
Hngwǔ
洪武
1368-1398 The Hongwu Emperor
Zhū Yǔnwn
朱允炆
Hud
惠帝
None given2 Jinwn
建文
1398-1402 The Jianwen Emperor
Zhū D
朱棣
Wēnd
文帝
Chngzǔ, 成祖 or
Tizōng, 太宗
Yǒngl
永樂
1402-1424 The Yongle Emperor
Zhū Gāoch
朱高熾
Zhāod
昭帝
Rnzōng
仁宗
Hngxī
洪熙
1424-1425 The Hongxi Emperor
Zhū Zhānjī
朱瞻基
Zhāngd
章帝
Xuānzōng
宣宗
Xuānd
宣德
1425-1435 The Xuande Emperor
Zhū Qzhn
朱祁鎮
Rud
睿帝
Yīngzōng
英宗
Zhngtǒng, 正統
1436-1449;
Tiānshn, 天順
1457-1464
1435-1449;
1457-14643
The Zhengtong Emperor
Zhū Qy
朱祁鈺
Jǐngd
景帝
Dizōng
代宗
Jǐngti
景泰
1449-1457 The Jingtai Emperor
Zhū Jinshēn
朱見深
Chnd
純帝
Xinzōng
憲宗
Chnghu
成化
1464-1487 The Chenghua Emperor
Zhū Yutng
朱祐樘
Jngd
敬帝
Xiozōng
孝宗
Hngzh
弘治
1487-1505 The Hongzhi Emperor
Zhū Huzho
朱厚照
Yd
毅帝
Wǔzōng
武宗
Zhngd
正德
1505-1521 The Zhengde Emperor
Zhū Hucōng
朱厚熜
Sd
肅帝
Shzōng
世宗
Jiājng
嘉靖
1521-1566 The Jiajing Emperor
Zhū Zǎihu
朱載垕
Zhuāngd
莊帝
Mzōng
穆宗
Lngqng
隆慶
1566-1572 The Longqing Emperor
Zhū Yjūn
朱翊鈞
Xiǎnd
顯帝
Shnzōng
神宗
Wnl
萬曆
1572-1620 The Wanli Emperor
Zhū Chnglu
朱常洛
Zhēnd
貞帝
Guāngzōng
光宗
Tichāng
泰昌
1620 The Taichang Emperor
Zhū Yujio
朱由校
Zhd
悊帝
Xīzōng
熹宗
Tiānqǐ
天啟
1620-1627 The Tianqi Emperor
Zhū Yujiǎn
朱由檢
Zhuānglimǐn
莊烈愍
Sīzōng
思宗
Chngzhēn
崇禎
1627-1644 The Chongzhen Emperor
1 As posthumous and temple names were often shared by emperors of different dynasties, they are usually preceded by the dynastic name, in this case, Ming, to avoid confusion. For example, the Hongwu emperor is frequently referred to as Ming Taizu.
2 The Yongle emperor usurped the throne of his nephew the Jianwen emperor, who was officially said to have died in a palace fire but who was suspected of escaping to live as a recluse. The Yongle emperor wiped out the record of his nephew's reign and no temple name was given him.
3 After listening to the poor advice of his eunuch advisers, the Zhengtong emperor personally led a campaign in 1449 against the Mongols and was captured. His brother, the Jingtai emperor, assumed the throne and, a hostage no longer of any value, the Mongols released the Zhengtong emperor who returned to live in seclusion. However, the Zhengtong emperor was able to reclaim his position upon the death of his brother, choosing the reign name Tianshun.

Southern Ming Dynasty

Personal Name Temple name Reign name Reign years Name by which
most commonly known
Zhū Yusōng
朱由崧
Ānzōng
安宗
Hngguāng
弘光
1644-1645 Prince of Fu
福王 F Wng
Zhū Yjin
朱聿鍵
Shozōng
紹宗
Lngwǔ
隆武
1645-1646 Prince of Tang
唐王 Tng Wng
Zhū Chngfāng
朱常淓
None given None given,
but sometimes referred to as the

Regency of the Prince of Lu (Luh)
潞王臨國 L Wng Ln Gu
1645 Prince of Lu (Luh*)
潞王 L Wng
Zhū Yǐhǎi
朱以海
None given None given,
but sometimes referred to as the

Regency of the Prince of Lu (Lou)
魯王臨國 Lǔ Wng Ln Gu
1645-1653 Prince of Lu (Lou*)
魯王 Lǔ Wng
Zhū Yyu
朱聿[金粵]
None given Showǔ
紹武
1646 Prince of Tang
唐王 Tng Wng
Zhū Yulng
朱由榔
None given Yǒngl
永曆
1646-1662 Prince of Gui
桂王 Gu Wng
  • The two characters are homonyms, both pronounced Lu; to distinguish them, one is usually kept as Lu and the other spelled differently. Luh is from Cambridge History of China; Lou is from A.C. Moule's Rulers of China (1957). When one irregular spelling is used, the other is kept as regular (Lu). The two systems are distinct and not used simultaneously.

Qing dynasty

To see the Qing dynasty emperors on a separate page, check here.

Given name1 Posthumous name2
(short form)
Temple name2 Reign name
Chinese, Manchu
Reign years Name by which
most commonly known
Nurhaci
努爾哈赤
pinyin: Nǔ'ěrhāch
Gāod
高帝
Tizǔ
太祖
Tiānmng
天命
Abkai fulingga
1616-16263 Nurhaci
Hong Taiji4
皇太極
pinyin: Hungtij
Wnd
文帝
Tizōng
太宗
Tiāncōng
天聰
Abkai sure
1627-1636;
Chngd
崇德
Wesihun erdemungge
1636-1643
1626-1643 Hong Taiji
Fln
福臨
Zhāngd
章帝
Shzǔ
世祖
Shnzh
順治
Ijishūn dasan
1643-16615 Shunzhi Emperor
Xuny
玄燁
Rnd
仁帝
Shngzǔ
聖祖
Kāngxī
康熙
Elhe taifin
1661-1722 Kangxi Emperor
Ynzhēn
胤禛
Xind
憲帝
Shzōng
世宗
Yōngzhng
雍正
Hūwaliyasun tob
1722-1735 Yongzheng Emperor
Hngl
弘曆
Chnd
純帝
Gāozōng
高宗
Qinlng
乾隆
Abkai wehiyehe
1735-1796
(died 1799)6
Qianlong Emperor
Yngyǎn
顒琰
Rud
睿帝
Rnzōng
仁宗
Jiāqng
嘉慶
Saicungga fengšen
1796-1820 Jiaqing Emperor
Mnnng
旻寧
Chngd
成帝
Xuānzōng
宣宗
Doguāng
道光
Doro eldengge
1820-1850 Daoguang Emperor
Yzhǔ
奕詝
Xiǎnd
顯帝
Wnzōng
文宗
Xinfēng
咸豐
Gubci elgiyengge
1850-1861 Xianfeng Emperor
Zǎichn
載淳
Yd
毅帝
Mzōng
穆宗
Tngzh
同治
Yooningga dasan
1861-18757 Tongzhi Emperor
Zǎitin
載湉
Jǐngd
景帝
Dzōng
德宗
Guāngx
光緒
Badarangga doro
1875-19087 Guangxu Emperor
Pǔy
溥儀
also known as Henry
Xnd 8
遜帝
None given 9 Xuāntǒng
宣統
Gehungge yoso
1908-192410
(died 1967)
Puyi
1 The Qing imperial family name was Aisin Gioro (愛新覺羅 aixin jueluo), but it was not common Manchu practice to include the family or clan name in an individual's personal name.
2 As posthumous and temple names were often shared by emperors of different dynasties, they are usually preceded by the dynastic name, in this case, Qing, to avoid confusion. For example, the Qianlong emperor is frequently referred to as Qing Gaozong.
3 Nurhaci founded the Jin () or Later Jin (後金) dynasty in 1616, but it was his son Hong Taiji who changed the name of the dynasty to Qing in 1636. Nurhaci adopted the reign name Tianming but his Qing titles were all conferred posthumously.
4 Hong Taiji is referred to erroneously in some historical literature as Abahai (阿巴海).
5 The Shunzhi emperor was the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper following the occupation of Beijing in 1644.
6 The Qianlong emperor officially retired in 1796, taking the title Emperor Emeritus (太上皇帝). This was an act of filial piety to ensure that he would not reign longer than his illustrious grandfather, the Kangxi emperor. However, he remained the ultimate authority until his death in 1799, at which point his son, the Jiaqing emperor, began to exercise the power that had been his in name only from 1796.
7 The Empress Dowager Cixi, concubine of the Xianfeng emperor, mother of the Tongzhi emperor, and adoptive mother of the Guangxu emperor, used her considerable skills of political manipulation to act as the power behind the throne or on the throne from 1861 until her death in 1908. She acted as a regent during the minorities of the two young emperors and confined the Guangxu emperor in the Summer Palace after he attempted to introduce reforms in 1898. The death of the Guangxu emperor was announced the day before her own.
8 Xundi ("The Abdicated Emperor") is the posthumous name given by mainland China and Taiwan's history books to Pu-yi.
9 In 2004 the descendants of the Qing imperial family have conferred a posthumous name and temple name upon the late Pu-yi. Posthumous name: Mindi (愍帝). Temple name: Gongzong (恭宗). It remains to be seen whether these names will be accepted by the Chinese public.
10 The Qing dynasty was overthrown in 1911, and the last emperor, Pu-yi, abdicated officially on February 12, 1912. However, that same day the Republic of China granted the "Articles of Favourable Treatment of the Emperor of the Great Qing after his Abdication" (清帝退位優待條件) which allowed Pu-yi to retain his imperial title and stated that he should be treated by the government of the Republic with the protocol attached to a foreign monarch. These articles were revised on November 5, 1924, after the coup by General Feng Yuxiang: the revised articles stated that Pu-yi was losing his imperial title and henceforth becoming a regular citizen of the Republic of China. Pu-yi was expelled from the Forbidden City that same day. Thus, Pu-yi was ruling emperor until February 12, 1912 (and also briefly between July 1 and July 12, 1917), and non-ruling emperor between February 12, 1912 and November 5, 1924. Pu-yi also later became the puppet leader of Japanese-controlled Manchukuo under the reign name Datong (大同) (1932-1934), then the puppet emperor of the same under the reign name Kangde (康德) (1934-1945).

Taiping Rebellion

Personal name Reign name
年號
(nian hao)
Reign years Name by which
most commonly known
Hong Xiuquan
洪秀全
Yuannian
元年
August, 1851 - May, 1864 Hong Xiuquan
Hong Tianguifu
洪天貴福
None given May, 1864 - August, 1864 Hong Tianguifu


Hongxian

Personal name Reign name
年號
(nian hao)
Reign years Name by which
most commonly known
Yuan Shikai
袁世凱
Hongxian
洪憲
1916 Yuan Shikai
ja:中国帝王一覧

zh:中国君主列表

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