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Tianjin

From Academic Kids

Tianjin is also the name of an asteroid, see 2209 Tianjin
天津市
Tiānjīn Sh
Abbreviation: 津 (pinyin: Jīn)
Tianjin is highlighted on this map
Origin of name 天 tiān - heaven
津 jīn - river ford
"emperor's ford"
Administration type Municipality
CPC Tianjin Committee Secretary Zhang Lichang
Mayor Dai Xianglong
Area 11,920 km² (30th)
Population (2003)
 - Metropolitan area
 - Density
10,110,000 (27th)
approx. 5 million
848/km² (3rd)
GDP (2003)
 - per capita
CNY 244.8 billion (21st)
CNY 24200 (3rd)
The rankings given above are in comparison with other province-level administrative divisions.
Major nationalities (2000) Han - 97%
Hui - 2%
Manchu - 0.6%
City flower Chinese rose
(Rosa chinensis)
County-level divisions 18
Township-level divisions
(December 31, 2004)
240
Postal code 300000 - 301900
Area code 22
Licence plate prefixes 津A, B, C
津E (taxis)
ISO 3166-2 CN-12
Official website:
www.tj.gov.cn (Simplified Chinese)

Tianjin (Template:Zh-cp; Postal System Pinyin: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of the People's Republic of China. As a municipality, Tianjin has provincial-level status and comes directly under the central government. The urban area of Tianjin is the third largest city in Mainland China.

Tianjin's urban area is located along the Hai He River. Its ports, some distance away, are located on Bohai Gulf of the Pacific Ocean. Tianjin Municipality borders Hebei province to the north, south, and west; the municipality of Beijing in a small portion to the northwest; and Bohai Gulf to the east.

Contents

History

The land where Tianjin lies today was created in historical times by sedimentation of various rivers entering the sea at Bohai Bay, including the Yellow River, which entered the sea in this area at one point.

The opening of the Grand Canal of China during the Sui Dynasty prompted the development of Tianjin into a trading center. Until 1404 Tianjin was called "Zhigu" (直沽), or "Straight Port". In that year, the Emperor Yongle renamed the city "Tianjin", literally "Heaven Ford", to mean that the emperor (son of heaven) forded the river at that point, as he indeed did earlier on his way to taking the throne forcibly from his nephew. A fort was established at Tianjin, known as "Tianjin Wei" (T: 天津衛 / S: 天津卫), meaning "Fort Tianjin".

Tianjin was promoted to a prefecture in 1725. Tianjin County was established under the prefecture in 1731.

In 1856 Chinese soldiers boarded The Arrow, a Chinese-owned ship registered in Hong Kong flying the British flag and suspected of piracy, smuggling and of being engaged in the opium trade. They captured 12 men and imprisoned them. In response the British and French sent gunboats under the command of Admiral Sir Michael Seymour to capture the Taku forts near Tianjin in May 1858. In June 1858, at the end of the first part of the Second Opium War, the Treaties of Tianjin were signed, which opened Tianjin to foreign trade. The treaties were ratified by the Emperor of China in 1860, and Tianjin was formally opened.

In June 1870, Wanghailou Church (T: 望海樓教堂 / S: 望海楼教堂) in Tianjin, built by French missionaries one year earlier, was implicated in the kidnapping, death by neglect, and improper burial of Chinese children. On June 21, the magistrate of Tianjin County initiated a showdown at the church that developed into violent clashes between the church's Christian supporters and non-Christian Tianjin residents. Mobs eventually burned down Wanghailou Church and the nearby French consulate, in what has since been known as the Tianjin Church Incident (天津教案). After the incident, France and six other Western nations complained to the Qing government, which was forced to pay compensation for the incident.

Between 1895 and 1900 Britain and France were joined by Japan, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy and Belgium in establishing self-contained concessions each with their own prisons, schools, barracks and hospitals.

In June 1900, the Boxers were able to seize control of much of Tianjin. On June 26 European forces heading towards Beijing were stopped by Boxers at nearby Langfang, and were forced to turn back to Tianjin. The foreign concessions also came under siege for several weeks. Herbert Hoover, the future President of the United States, was working in Tianjin at the time as chief engineer in the Chinese government's imperial bureau of mines, and together with fellow engineers built a protective wall against the attackers and risked his own life rescuing Chinese children.

Tianjin was established as a municipality of China in 1927.

On July 30, 1937, Tianjin fell to Japan, as part of the Second Sino-Japanese War. During the occupation Tianjin was ruled by the North China Executive Committee, a puppet state based in Beijing. Japanese occupation lasted until August 15, 1945, the surrender of Japan marking the end of World War II.

Missing image
TianjinPaifang.jpg
Gate monument (paifang) extolling Confucius

After 1945, Tianjin became base to American forces. In December 1946, the rape of a Beiping (now Beijing) female university student by an American soldier, together with a series of rapes that had previouisly occurred in Tianjin, sparked protests in Tianjin that culminated in a demonstration on January 1, 1947 involving thousands of students. American troops pulled out of Tianjin in June 1947.

Communist forces took Tianjin on January 15, 1949, following a 29-hour long battle. After communist takeover, Tianjin remained a municipality of China, except between 1958 and 1967, when it was reduced to be a part of and the capital of Hebei province. The Tangshan earthquake of 1976 killed 23938 people in Tianjin and did heavy damage.

After China began to open up in the late 1970s, Tianjin has seen rapidly development, though it is now lagging behind other important cities like Shanghai, Beijing, and Guangzhou.

Missing image
TianjinJinjie.jpg
Commercial area

Geography

Tianjin is at the northern end of the Grand Canal of China, which connects with the Huang He and Yangtze rivers.

Tianjin Municipality is generally flat, and swampy near the coast, but hilly in the far north, where the Yanshan Mountains pass through the tip of northern Tianjin. The highest point in Tianjin is Jiushanding Peak on the northern border with Hebei, at an altitude of 1078 m.

The Hai He River forms within Tianjin Municipality at the confluence of the Ziya River, Daqing River, Yongding River, North Grand Canal, and South Grand Canal; and enters the Pacific Ocean at Tianjin Muncipality as well, in Dagu District. Major reservoirs include the Beidagang Reservoir in the extreme south (in Dagang District) and the Yuqiao Reservoir in the extreme north (in Ji County).

The urban area of Tianjin is found in the south-central part of the Municipality. In addition to the main urban area of Tianjin proper, the coast along the Bohai is lined with a series of port towns, including Tanggu and Hangu.

Tianjin's climate is characterized by hot, humid summers, due to the monsoon, and dry, cold winters, due to the Siberian anticyclone. Spring is windy but dry, and most of the precipitation takes place in July and August.

Administrative divisions

Tianjin is divided into 18 county-level divisions, including 15 districts and 3 counties.

Six of the districts govern the urban area of Tianjin:

Missing image
TianjinMachangdao3.jpg
Heping District

Three of the districts govern towns and harbours along the seacoast:

Six of the districts govern satellite towns and rural areas close to the urban center:

The three counties govern towns and rural areas further away from the urban center:

In addition, the Tianjin Economic and Technological Development Area (TEDA) is not a formal level of administration, but nevertheless enjoys rights similar to a regular district.

These districts and counties are further subdivided, as of December 31, 2004, into 240 township-level divisions, including 120 towns, 18 townships, 2 ethnic townships and 100 subdistricts.

Economy

The nominal GDP for Tianjin was 293.2 billion Renminbi in 2004, and per capita was 31600 Renminbi. The secondary sector of industry remains the largest (53.2%) and fastest-growing (19.8%) sector of Tianjin's economy. Urban disposable income per capita was 11467 Renminbi, a real increase of 11.2% from the previous year. Rural pure income per capita was 6525 Renminbi, a real increase of 11.3% from the previous year. [1] (http://www.stats-tj.gov.cn/2004gb.htm)

Farmland takes up about 40% of Tianjin Municipality's total area. Wheat, rice, and maize are the most important crops. Fishing is important along the coast. Tianjin is also an important industrial base. Major industries include petrochemical industries, textiles, car manufacturing, mechanical industries, and metalworking.

Tianjin Municipality also has deposits of about 1 billion tonnes of petroleum, with Dagang District containing important oilfields. Salt production is also important, with Changlu Yanqu being one of China's most important salt production areas. Geothermal energy is another resource of Tianjin. Deposits of manganese and boron under Tianjin were the first to be found in China.

Demographics

At the end of 2004, the population of Tianjin Municipality was 10.24 million, of which 9.33 million were holders of Tianjin hukou (permanent residence). Among Tianjin permanent residents, 5.56 million were urban, and 3.76 million were rural. [2] (http://www.stats-tj.gov.cn/2004gb.htm)

The majority of Tianjin residents are Han Chinese. Minorities include Hui, Koreans, Manchus, and Mongols.

Missing image
TianjinDrumTower.jpg
drum tower
Ethnic groups in Tianjin, 2000 census
Nationality Population Percentage1
Han 9,581,775 97.29%
Hui 172,357 1.75%
Manchu 56,548 0.57%
Mongol 11,331 0.12%
Korean 11,041 0.11%
Zhuang 4055 0.041%
Tujia 3677 0.037%

1Approximate only. Calculated by dividing over sum of raw population data for all 56 nationalities. Includes only citizens of the PRC. Does not include members of the People's Liberation Army in active service.
Source: 2000年人口普查中国民族人口资料,民族出版社,2003/9 (ISBN 7105054255)

Culture

People from urban Tianjin speak Tianjin dialect, which comes under the Mandarin subdivision of spoken Chinese. Despite its proximity to Beijing, Tianjin dialect sounds quite different from Beijing dialect, which provides the basis for Putonghua, official spoken language of the People's Republic of China.

Tianjin cuisine places a heavy focus on seafood, due to Tianjin's proximity to the sea. Prominent menus include the Eight Great Bowls (八大碗), which is further divided into the rough (粗) and smooth (S: 细 / T: 細) varieties; and the Four Great Stews (四大扒). As far as snacks go, Tianjin's Goubuli (狗不理) is a traditional brand of baozi that is famous throughout China; its Guifaxiang (S: 桂发祥 / T: 桂發祥) mahua (twisted dough sticks) is only slightly less famous; and its Erduoyan (耳朵眼) fried rice cakes round out the list of Tianjin's three representative light snack items.

Tianjin is also a respected home base of Beijing opera, one of the most prestigious forms of Chinese opera.

Ma Sanli (1914 - 2003), an ethnic Hui and longtime resident of Tianjin, is paramountly respected in China for his xiangsheng, a hugely popular form of Chinese entertainment similar to stand-up comedy. Ma Sanli delivered his xiangsheng in the Tianjin dialect.

Yangliuqing, a town about 15 km west of Tianjin's urban area and the seat of Tianjin's Xiqing District, is famous for its popular Chinese New Year-themed, traditional-style, colourful wash paintings. Tianjin is also famous for Zhang's clay figurines (S: 泥人张 / T: 泥人張) which are a type of colourful figurine depicting a variety of vivid characters; while Tianjin's Wei's kites (S: 风筝魏 / T: 風箏魏), which can be folded to a fraction of their full sizes, are noted for portability.

Stereotypes

People from Tianjin are stereotyped to be eloquent, humorous, open, and unfettered, but also loud, verbose, lazy, and prone to arguing / fighting. There is a term for the stereotype of the always-eloquent and sometimes-humorous Tianjin native: wizuǐzi (S: 卫嘴子 / T: 衛嘴子), which translates roughly as "the Tianjin mouth". This stereotype is perhaps partially the result of Ma Sanli's reputation (see "Culture" section above).

Transportation

Rail

There are several railway stations in the city, Tianjin Railway Station being the principal one. It was built in 1888, initially, the station was located at Wangdaozhuang (S: 旺道庄 / T: 旺道莊). The station was later moved to Laolongtou (S: 老龙头 / T: 老龍頭) on the banks of the Hai He River in 1892, so the station was renamed Laolongtou Railway Station. The station was rebuilt from scatch in 1988. The rebuilding work began on April 15, 1987 and was finished on October 1, 1988.

Tianjin West Railway Station and Tianjin North Railway Station are also major railway stations in Tianjin. There is also Tanggu Railway Station is located in the important port area of Tanggu District, and TEDA Railway Station located in TEDA, to the north of Tanggu. There are several other railway stations in the city.

The following railways of China go through Tianjin:

Roads and expressways

Some spots in Tianjin, including roads and bridges, have names from Dr. Sun Yat-Sen's Three Principles of the People (for example, Minquan Gate on Zhonghuan Road). Names harkening back to the era of the Republic of China on the mainland also appear (e.g. Beiyang Road). Many roads in Tianjin are named after a Chinese province or city. Also, Tianjin is unlike Beijing, in that very few roads run parallel to the major four compass directions.

Tianjin has three ring roads. Unlike Beijing, the Inner and Middle Ring Roads are not closed, traffic-controlled roadways and some often have traffic light intersections. The Outer Ring Road is the closest thing to a highway-level ring road, although traffic is often chaotic and sometimes more than chaotic.

Tianjin's roads often finish in dao (道 avenue), xian (S: 线 / T: 線 line, more used for highways and through routes) and lu (路 road). Jie (街 street) is rare. As Tianjin's roads are rarely in a cardinal compass direction, jing (S: 经 / T: 經) roads and wei (S: 纬 / T: 緯) roads often appear, which attempt to run more directly north-south and east-west, respectively.

The following seven expressways of China run in or through Tianjin:

The following six China National Highways pass through Tianjin:

Template:Roads and Expressways of Tianjin

Air

Tianjin Binhai International Airport (ZBTJ) is located to the east of the urban area, in Dongli District, Tianjin.

Public transit

The Tianjin bus network was created in 1904, and was the first city to have its own city-wide bus system in China. There were 402 bus lines in the city as of 2004. [3] (http://www.stats-tj.gov.cn/2004gb.htm)

Construction work on the Tianjin Metro started on July 4, 1970. It was the second metro to be built in China and commenced service in 1984. The total length of track is 7.4 kilometers. The metro service was suspended on October 9, 2001 and is currently being rebuilt. This new metro will be called "Tianjin Metro Line 1". It is scheduled to be finished in the later half of 2005. The track will be extended to 26.188 kilometers and there will be a total of 22 stations. Previously, there were 8 stations. Several new metro lines are planned. Construction work on Line 2 and Line 3 will begin in late 2004.

There is also a light railway line in the city, the LRT Binhai Line. The line runs between downtown Tianjin and TEDA (Tianjin Economic Development Area) in the seaside region. The eastern part of the line began service on March 28, 2004. The western part of the line is scheduled to be completed in 2006.

Tourism

Sights within the Tianjin urban area include:

Sights outside the Tianjin urban area, but within the municipality, include:

Sports teams

Sports teams based in Tianjin include:

Chinese Football Association Super League

Colleges and Universities

Under the national Ministry of Education:

Under the national Civil Aviation Authority:

Under the municipal government:

Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.

High Schools

  • Yaohua High School (耀华中学)
  • Nankai High School (南开中学)
  • No. 1 High School (第一中学) is one of the most elite high schools in the city and a member of the locally named Good School Circle.
  • Xinhua High School (新华中学)
  • Shiyan High School (实验中学)

City partnerships

City Country Sister City since:
Kobe Japan June 24, 1973
Philadelphia United States February 10, 1980
Melbourne Australia May 5, 1980
Yokkaichi Japan October 28, 1980
Sarajevo Bosnia and Herzegovina May 28, 1981
Nord-Pas de Calais France October 10, 1984
Lombardy Italy May 9, 1985
Groningen Netherlands September 12, 1985
Chiba Japan May 7, 1986
Plovdiv Region Bulgaria October 15, 1989
Izmir Turkey September 23, 1991
Abidjan Cte d'Ivoire September 26, 1992
Ulaanbaatar Mongolia September 27, 1992
Kharkiv Ukraine June 14, 1993
Jnkping Sweden September 23, 1993
Incheon South Korea December 7, 1993
Łdź Poland October 1, 1994
Rio de Janeiro State Brazil April 18, 1995
Amazonas State Brazil October 20, 1997
Haiphong Vietnam January 8, 1999
Nampo North Korea August 11, 2002

Source: http://www.tjfao.gov.cn/guojiyoucheng/shijiyouhao/index.html

Astronomical phenomena

At 39° 08′ N, 117° 12′ E, the previous total solar eclipse was solar eclipse of 1277-Oct-28 occurred on October 28 1277, the next total solar eclipse will be solar eclipse of 2187-Jul-06 occurred on July 6 2187.

Total solar eclipses from 1001 to 3000 are:

  • 1277-Oct-28 13:25 CST
  • 2187-Jul-06 17:11 CST
  • 2636-May-27 04:58 CST
  • 2762-Aug-12 09:25 CST
  • 2846-Feb-17 12:07 CST

Annular solar eclipses from 1001 to 3000 are:

  • 1189-Feb-17 11:42 CST
  • 1292-Jan-21 13:34 CST
  • 1665-Jan-16 16:48 CST
  • 1802-Aug-28 15:55 CST
  • 2118-Mar-22 15:33 CST
  • 2556-Sep-05 10:59 CST
  • 2686-Sep-10 06:58 CST
  • 2813-Nov-14 10:10 CST
  • 2894-Dec-18 14:21 CST

Wikisource has an article about solar eclipses as seen from Tianjin from 2001 to 3000.

External links

Template:Commons

Province-level divisions administered by the People's Republic of China Missing image
PRC_flag_large.png
Flag of the People's Republic of China

Provinces¹: Anhui | Fujian | Gansu | Guangdong | Guizhou | Hainan | Hebei | Heilongjiang | Henan | Hubei | Hunan | Jiangsu | Jiangxi | Jilin | Liaoning | Qinghai | Shaanxi | Shandong | Shanxi | Sichuan | Yunnan | Zhejiang
Autonomous Regions: Guangxi | Inner Mongolia | Ningxia | Tibet | Xinjiang
Municipalities: Beijing | Chongqing | Shanghai | Tianjin
Special Administrative Regions: Hong Kong | Macau
¹ See also: Political status of Taiwan
de:Tianjin

es:Tianin fr:Tianjin nl:Tianjin ja:天津 no:Tianjin pl:Tianjin fi:Tianjin zh:天津

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