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Torun

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Toruń (pronounce: Missing image
Ltspkr.png
Image:Ltspkr.png

[], Kashubian: Torń, German Thorn, see also other names) is a city in northern Poland, on the Vistula river. It has 208,386 inhabitants (2004). One of the capitals of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodship (since 1999), previously the capital of the Toruń Voivodship (1975-1998) and the Pomeranian Voivodship (1921-1939), the city is located near the Geographic Center of Europe.

The medieval town of Toruń is on the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. The city of Toruń creates a bipolar agglomeration Bydgoszcz-Toruń with the city of Bydgoszcz, located only 30 km away. The 2 cities are gradually integrating. In September 2004 the Medical Academy in Bydgoszcz joined Toruń University as Collegium Medicum UMK in Bydgoszcz.

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Contents

City name

Early documents record the city name as Thorn, Thorun (1226, 1466), Turon, Turun, Toron, Thoron, and after 15th century the Polish name: Toruń. Points of view diverge on the origin of Thorn/Toruń's name. There are several possible etymologies:

  • Founded by the Teutonic Knights nearby an old Polish village named "old Toruń", Thorn may be derived from the city of Toron, that was located in the Kingdom of Jerusalem during the Crusades.
  • It may come from a Polish word tor which means track (of the Vistula river). If this is true Toruń means town on the track
  • It may come from the personal name Toron and mean Toron's town
  • It may have been originally Tarnw (there are many such cities in Poland, tarnina = a kind of river plant), which was later Germanized into Thorn, and re-Polonized into Toruń.
  • It may come from the Gothic god Thor

However, others claim that neither name Toruń nor Thorn has any etymological meaning. (reference: Professor Jan Miodek)

The Teutonic Knights usually spelled the city's name as Thorun, and later when the city was a royal city subject to Polish Kings, the Latin documents and coins usually spelled Thorun, Thorunium, civitas Thorunensis or civitas Torunensis. Later it was spelled Thorn, and after the second world war the official name was changed to Toruń when the city became part of Poland.

History

Toruń was a small settlement in Chelmno Land (Ziemia Chelminska), a western part of Mazovia. in 1266 it was awarded by the duke Conrad of Mazovia as a fief to the Teutonic Knights to be a safeguard against the heathen Prussians.

The Teutonic Knights built a castle there (1230-31), and the settlement acquired town rights in 1233, relocating from its original site to what is called today "Old Town" in 1236. The city soon became an important medieval trade center, and a member of the Hanseatic League. In 1263, Franciscan monks settled in Toruń, and they were followed in 1239 by Dominicans. In 1264 the neighboring Toruń New Town was founded. It was a separate town until 1454, when the old and new cities were amalgamated.

During the 14th century, Toruń joined the Hanseatic League.

Famous people of Toruń

Education

Economy

Major corporations

  • Krajowa Spłka Cukrowa SA
  • Torfarm SA
  • Zakład Energetyczny Toruń SA
  • Elana SA
  • ThyssenKrupp Energostal SA
  • CPP-Toruń-Pacific sp. z o.o.
  • Toruńskie Zakłady Materiałw Opatrunkowych SA

Politics

Toruń constituency

Members of Parliament (Sejm) elected from Toruń constituency

  • Ryszard Chodynicki, SLD-UP
  • Bogdan Derwich, SLD-UP
  • Lech Kuropatwiński, Samoobrona
  • Bogdan Lewandowski, SLD-UP
  • Krystian Łuczak, SLD-UP
  • Antoni Mężydło, PiS
  • Marek Olewiński, SLD-UP
  • Sławomir Rybicki, PO
  • Anna Sobecka, LPR
  • Zbigniew Sosnowski, PSL
  • Leszek Sułek, Samoobrona
  • Elżbieta Szparaga, SLD-UP
  • Jerzy Wenderlich, SLD-UP


Architecture

Baroque facade of Dambski Palace (18th c.)
Enlarge
Baroque facade of Dambski Palace (18th c.)
Part of medieval city walls
Enlarge
Part of medieval city walls
Gothic building from 15th c. with Guard Keep (13 c.), both rebuild in 19th c.
Enlarge
Gothic building from 15th c. with Guard Keep (13 c.), both rebuild in 19th c.
Missing image
Torun3.jpg
Partial view of Teutonic Knights' castle

External links:


 
Poland
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Voivodships of Poland
Greater Poland | Kuyavia-Pomerania | Lesser Poland | Łdź | Lower Silesia | Lublin | Lubusz | Masovia | Opole | Podlachia | Pomerania | Świętokrzyskie | Silesia | Subcarpathia | Warmia and Masuria | West Pomerania
Principal cities
Warsaw | Łdź | Krakw | Wrocław | Poznań | Gdańsk | Szczecin | Bydgoszcz | Lublin | Katowice | Białystok | Częstochowa | Gdynia | Gorzw Wlkp. | Toruń | Radom | Kielce | Rzeszw | Olsztyn
bg:Торун

cs:Toruň de:Thorn fr:Torun ja:トルン lv:Toruņa nl:Torun no:Thorn pl:Toruń sk:Toruň sl:Torun sv:Toru zh:托伦

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