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U.S. presidential election, 1824

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ElectoralCollege1824-Large.png
Presidential electoral votes by state.

The U.S. presidential election of 1824 is often considered a realigning election. The previous few years had seen the rare phenomenon of one-party government in the United States, as the Federalist Party had dissolved, leaving only the Republican Party. In this election, the Republican party splintered as four separate candidates sought the presidency. The faction led by Andrew Jackson would evolve into the United States Democratic Party, while the factions led by John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay would become the National Republican Party and later the Whigs.

This election is notable for being the first (and, as of 2005, only) time since the passage of the Twelfth Amendment that the presidential election was thrown into the House of Representatives. It was also the first (and only) time that the president did not win the electoral vote. (It is also often said to be the first election in which the president did not win the popular vote. This is hard to determine, insofar as a quarter of the states did not conduct a popular vote, instead having the state legislature choose their electors.)

Contents

General election

Campaign

The election was a contest between:

In 1823, Crawford suffered a stroke. Even though he recovered in 1824, this crippled his bid for the presidency.

Results

None of the four presidential candidates received a majority of the electoral vote, so the presidential election was thrown into the House of Representatives. (See "Contingent election" below.) Meanwhile, John Caldwell Calhoun secured a total of 182 electoral votes in a generally uncompetitive race to win the vice presidency outright.

Template:Start U.S. presidential election box Template:U.S. presidential election box row Template:U.S. presidential election box row Template:U.S. presidential election box row Template:U.S. presidential election box row Template:End U.S. presidential election box (a) The popular vote figures exclude Delaware, Georgia, Louisiana, New York, South Carolina, and Vermont. In all of these states, the Electors were chosen by the state legislatures rather than by popular vote.
(b) Template:U.S. popular vote total disclaimer

Template:Start U.S. vice presidential election box Template:U.S. vice presidential election box row Template:U.S. vice presidential election box row Template:U.S. vice presidential election box row Template:U.S. vice presidential election box row Template:U.S. vice presidential election box row Template:U.S. vice presidential election box row Template:End U.S. vice presidential election box

Breakdown by ticket

Template:Start U.S. electoral vote box Template:U.S. electoral vote box row Template:U.S. electoral vote box row Template:U.S. electoral vote box row Template:U.S. electoral vote box row Template:U.S. electoral vote box row Template:U.S. electoral vote box row Template:U.S. electoral vote box row Template:U.S. electoral vote box row Template:U.S. electoral vote box row Template:U.S. electoral vote box row Template:U.S. electoral vote box row Template:U.S. electoral vote box row Template:U.S. electoral vote box row Template:U.S. electoral vote box row Template:U.S. electoral vote box row Template:U.S. electoral vote box row Template:End U.S. electoral vote box (a) Wikipedia's research has not yet been sufficient to determine the pairings of 21 electoral votes in Delaware, Maryland, and New York; therefore, the possible tickets are listed with the minimum and maximum possible number of electoral votes each.

Contingent election

The presidential election was thrown to the U.S. House of Representatives. As per the Twelfth Amendment, only the top three candidates in the electoral vote were candidates in the House: Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, and William Harris Crawford. Left out was Henry Clay, who happened to be Speaker of the House. Clay detested Jackson — he had said that, "I cannot believe that killing 2,500 Englishmen at New Orleans qualifies for the … duties of the First Magistracy" — and Clay's American System was far closer to Adams' position on tariffs and internal improvements than Jackson's or Crawford's, so he threw his support to Adams, and Adams won on the first ballot.

This shocked Jackson, who expected that, as the winner of a plurality of both the popular and electoral votes, he should have been elected President. When President Adams appointed Clay his Secretary of State, essentially declaring him heir to the Presidency — Adams and his three predecessors had all served as Secretary of State — Jackson and his followers accused Adams and Clay of striking a "corrupt bargain". The Jacksonians would campaign on this claim for the next four years, ultimately leading to Jackson's victory in the Adams-Jackson rematch in 1828.

Adams Jackson Crawford
1st ballot 13 7 4
1st ballot
Alabama Jackson
Connecticut Adams
Delaware Crawford
Georgia Crawford
Illinois Adams
Indiana Jackson
Kentucky Adams
Louisiana Adams
Maine Adams
Maryland Adams
Massachusetts Adams
Mississippi Jackson
Missouri Adams
New Hampshire Adams
New Jersey Jackson
New York Adams
North Carolina Crawford
Ohio Adams
Pennsylvania Jackson
Rhode Island Adams
South Carolina Jackson
Tennessee Jackson
Vermont Adams
Virginia Crawford

Electoral college selection

Method of choosing Electors State(s)
each Elector chosen by voters statewide Alabama
Connecticut
Indiana
Massachusetts
Mississippi
New Hampshire
New Jersey
North Carolina
Ohio
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
Virginia
each Elector appointed by state legislature Delaware
Georgia
Louisiana
New York
South Carolina
Vermont
state is divided into electoral districts, with one Elector chosen per district by the voters of that district Illinois
Kentucky
Maryland
Missouri
Tennessee
  • two Electors chosen by voters statewide
  • one Elector chosen per Congressional district by the voters of that district
Maine

See also

Template:Uspresidentialelections

Reference

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