Advertisement

Uruguay

From Academic Kids

The Eastern Republic of Uruguay (Spanish: Repblica Oriental del Uruguay) is a small country located in southern South America. It is bordered by Brazil to the north, the Uruguay River to the west, the estuary of the Ro de la Plata (literally "Silver River", but commonly known in English as "River Plate") to the southwest, with Argentina on the other bank of both, and finally the South Atlantic Ocean to the southeast. About one-half of its people live in the capital and largest city, Montevideo.

The nation is the second-smallest country in South America and is one of the most politically and economically stable.

Repblica Oriental del Uruguay
Flag of the Uruguay Coat of Arms of Uruguay
(Flag of Uruguay) (Coat of Arms of Uruguay)
National motto: Libertad o Muerte
(Spanish, Liberty or Death)
Missing image
LocationUruguay.png
Image:LocationUruguay.png

Official language: Spanish
Capital:
 - Population:
Montevideo
1,330,405(1996)
Largest city: Montevideo
President: Tabar Vzquez
Area:
 - Total:
 - % water:
Ranked 90th
176,220 km² ¹
1.5%
Land borders:
Coastline:
1,564km
660km
Population:
 - Total:
 - Density:
Ranked 130th
3,399,237 (2002)
19/km²
Independence
 - Declared
 - Recognized
From Brazil
August 25, 1825
August 28, 1828
Religions: Roman Catholic  (~66%), Protestant  (2%), Jewish  (1%)
GDP (2005):
 - Total:
 - GDP/capita:
Rank 91th, 85th, 67nd, 74th
$32,885
$9,619
Currency: Uruguayan Peso
Time zone: UTC -3
National anthem: Orientales, la Patria o la tumba
Internet TLD: .uy
Calling Code: 598
Contents

History

Main article: History of Uruguay

The name "Uruguay" comes from Guaran, the language of the native people of the region. It means "River of the Painted Birds".

The first Europeans arrived in the area in the early 16th century. Both Spain and Portugal pursued the colonization of Uruguay, with the Spanish eventually gaining control. The future capital, Montevideo, was founded in the early 18th century and became a rival to Buenos Aires across the Ro de la Plata. Montevideo, however, was thought of as a military center for the Spanish empire, while Buenos Aires was a commercial center.

In the early 19th century, independence movements sprung up across South America, including Uruguay (then known as the Banda Oriental ("Eastern Shore", referring to the area east of the Ro de la Plata). Uruguayan territory was contested between the nascent states of Brazil and Argentina. Brazil annexed the area in 1821 under the name of Provincia Cisplatina, but a revolt began on August 25, 1825, after which Uruguay became an independent country with the Treaty of Montevideo in 1828.

The original population of Charra Indians was gradually decimated over three centuries, culminating on 11 April 1831 in a mass killing at Salsipuedes, which was led by General Fructuoso Rivera, Uruguay's first president. After that date the few remaining Charras were dispersed and a viable Charra culture was a thing of the past, although Charra blood still runs in the veins of many Uruguayans today as a result of extensive Charra-Spanish intermixing during colonial times. Four Charras — Senaqu, the leader Vaimaca Pir, the warrior Tacuab and his wife Guyunusa — were taken to Paris in 1833 to be displayed as circus attractions.

In the latter part of the 19th century, Uruguay participated in the War of the Triple Alliance against Paraguay.

Uruguay then experienced a series of elected and appointed presidents and saw conflicts with neighboring states, political and economic fluctuations and modernization, and large inflows of immigrants, mostly from Europe. The work of President Jos Batlle y Ordez made Uruguay an advanced nation with a complex welfare system; for most of the 20th century Uruguay was on par with European nations. Due to its advanced social system and its stable democracy, Uruguay came to be known as "the Switzerland of the Americas".

The Uruguayan economy relies largely on agricultural exports. The world wars brought prosperity as Uruguayan beef and grain went to feed a war-ravaged Europe. World food prices dropped precipitously following the end of WW2, which triggered years of decline for the Uruguayan economy. By the 1960's, the stable social system began to break down as the economy spiralled. The government started losing popular support as students, workers and lower-class families felt the pain of an economy unable to adapt to a post-agricultural world economy. The Tupamaros, a radical leftist group, responded to the crisis with violence, which triggered government repression that ended with the suspension of individual rights by the president, Jorge Pacheco Areco, and his succesor, Juan Mara Bordaberry. Finally, in 1973, the army seized power, ushering in 11 years of military dictatorship in what was once one of the most stable democracies in the region. In 1984, democracy was finally restored with the election of Julio Mara Sanguinetti.

Politics

Main article: Politics of Uruguay

Uruguay's Constitution of 1967 created a strong presidency, subject to legislative and judicial checks. The president, who is both head of state and head of government, is elected by popular vote for a five-year term, with the vice president elected on the same ticket. Thirteen cabinet ministers, appointed by the president, head executive departments.

The parliament is the bicameral General Assembly or Asamblea General, which consists of a 30-member senate (Cmara de Senadores), presided over by the vice president of the republic, and a 99-member Chamber of Representatives (Cmara de Representantes). Members for both houses are elected by popular vote for a five-year term.

The highest court is the Supreme Court; below it are appellate and lower courts, and justices of the peace. In addition, there are electoral and administrative ("contentious") courts, an accounts court, and a military justice system.

For most of Uruguay's history, the Colorado and Blanco parties had alternated in power. The elections of 2004, however, brought the Frente Amplio, a coalition of various leftist parties, to power with majorities in both houses of parliament and the election of President Tabar Vzquez Rosas by an absolute majority.

Departments

Map of Uruguay
Enlarge
Map of Uruguay

Main article: Departments of Uruguay

Uruguay consists of 19 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento):

Geography

Main article: Geography of Uruguay

Missing image
Uruguay_T2.png
Photo

Uruguay is the second-smallest country in South America. The landscape features mostly rolling plains and low hills (cuchillas) with a fertile coastal lowland, most of it grassland, ideal for cattle and sheep raising. The highest point in the country is the Cerro Catedral at 514 m. To the southwest is the Ro de la Plata (Silver River), the estuary of the Uruguay River, which forms the western border, and the Paran River, that does not run through Uruguay itself. The only other major river is the Ro Negro. Several lagoons are found along the Atlantic coast.

The climate in Uruguay is temperate, but fairly warm, as freezing temperatures are almost unknown. The predominantly flat landscape is also somewhat vulnerable to rapid changes from weather fronts, as well as to the pampero, a chilly and occasionally violent wind blowing north from the pampas plains in Argentina.

Economy

Main article: Economy of Uruguay

Uruguay's economy is characterised by an export-oriented agricultural sector, a well-educated workforce, and high levels of social spending, as well as a developed industrial sector. After averaging growth of 5% annually in 19961998, in 19992001 the economy suffered from lower demand in Argentina and Brazil, which together account for nearly half of Uruguay's exports. Despite the severity of the trade shocks, Uruguay's financial indicators remained more stable than those of its neighbours, a reflection of its solid reputation among investors and its investment-grade sovereign bond rating — one of only two in South America. In recent years Uruguay has shifted most of its energy into developing the commercial use of IT technologies and has become the leading exporter of software in Latin America.

While some parts of the economy appeared to be resilient, the downturn had a far more severe impact on Uruguayan citizens, as unemployment levels rose to more than twenty percent, real wages fell, the peso was devalued, and the percentage of Uruguayans in poverty reached almost 40%. These worsening economic conditions played a part in turning public opinion against the free market economic policies adopted by the previous administrations in the 1990s, leading to popular rejection of proposals for privatization of the state petroleum company in 2003 and of the state water company in 2004. The newly elected Frente Amplio government, while pledging to continue payments on Uruguay's external debt, has also promised to undertake a crash jobs programs to attack the widespread problems of poverty and unemployment.

Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Uruguay

As a Spanish-speaking country of Latin America, most Uruguayans share a Spanish cultural background, even though about one-quarter of the population is of Italian origin. Some 88% of the population is of European descent, with mestizos (8%) and blacks (4%) forming the only significant ethnic minorities. Church and state are officially separated, with most adhering to the Roman Catholic faith (66%), with smaller Protestant (2%) and Jewish (1%) communities, as well as a large nonprofessing group (31%).

Uruguay is distinguished by its high literacy rate, large urban middle class, and relatively even income distribution. During the past two decades, an estimated 500,000 Uruguayans have emigrated, principally to Argentina and Brazil. As a result of the low birth rate, high life expectancy, and relatively high rate of emigration of younger people, Uruguay's population is quite mature.

Culture

Main article: Culture of Uruguay

Sports

Main article: Sports in Uruguay

Soccer (ftbol in Spanish) is the most important sport in Uruguay. Uruguay won two Olympic gold medals in soccer in 1924 and in 1928. The first World Cup in soccer was held in 1930 in Montevideo, which Uruguay won. The Estadio Centenario was built for the World Cup, and serves to this day as the country's main soccer stadium. Uruguay also won the World Cup in 1950, beating Brazil in Rio de Janeiro at Maracan Stadium, a fact that many Uruguayan soccer fans still boast of.

While soccer is undoubtedly the most popular sport in Uruguay, rugby and basketball are also popular.

Miscellaneous topics

External links

Government resources

General information

  • Template:Wikitravel
  • Uruguay Total (http://www.uruguaytotal.com/) - Uruguayan portal (in Spanish)
  • Uruguay.com (http://www.uruguay.com/) - Uruguayan portal (in Spanish, with English links)
  • Wine Uruguay (http://www.vino-uruguay.com/index.php?Lang=en) - Uruguayan Wine Guide (in English, Spanish, German)

Commercial links

  • Ministerio de Turismo del Uruguay (http://www.turismo.gub.uy/index.php) - Government tourism information site (in Spanish, Portuguese and English)
  • Travel to Uruguay (http://www.traveltouruguay.com/) - Tourism portal (in English)
  • Uruguay XII (http://www.uruguayxxi.gub.uy/) - Investment and Export Promotion (in Spanish and English)
  • Uruguayan Rugby (http://www.uru.org.uy) - Uruguayan Rugby Union (in Spanish)
  • Uruguayan Basketball (http://www.fubb.org.uy) - Uruguayan Basketball Federation (in Spanish)


Countries in South America
Argentina | Bolivia | Brazil | Chile | Colombia | Ecuador | Guyana | Panama | Paraguay | Peru | Suriname | Trinidad and Tobago | Uruguay | Venezuela
Dependencies: Falkland Islands | French Guiana
ar:اوروغواي

ca:Uruguai da:Uruguay de:Uruguay et:Uruguay es:Uruguay eo:Urugvajo fr:Uruguay gl:Uruguai - Uruguay ko:우루과이 hi:उरुग्वे id:Uruguay it:Uruguay he:אורוגוואי lt:Urugvajus ms:Uruguay nl:Uruguay nds:Uruguay ja:ウルグアイ no:Uruguay pl:Urugwaj (państwo) pt:Uruguai qu:Uruwayi ru:Уругвай sk:Uruguaj sl:Urugvaj fi:Uruguay sv:Uruguay tl:Uruguay tr:Uruguay uk:Уругвай yi:אורוגװײַ zh:乌拉圭

Navigation

Academic Kids Menu

  • Art and Cultures
    • Art (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Art)
    • Architecture (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Architecture)
    • Cultures (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Cultures)
    • Music (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Music)
    • Musical Instruments (http://academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/List_of_musical_instruments)
  • Biographies (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Biographies)
  • Clipart (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Clipart)
  • Geography (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Geography)
    • Countries of the World (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Countries)
    • Maps (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Maps)
    • Flags (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Flags)
    • Continents (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Continents)
  • History (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/History)
    • Ancient Civilizations (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Ancient_Civilizations)
    • Industrial Revolution (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Industrial_Revolution)
    • Middle Ages (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Middle_Ages)
    • Prehistory (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Prehistory)
    • Renaissance (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Renaissance)
    • Timelines (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Timelines)
    • United States (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/United_States)
    • Wars (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Wars)
    • World History (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/History_of_the_world)
  • Human Body (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Human_Body)
  • Mathematics (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Mathematics)
  • Reference (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Reference)
  • Science (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Science)
    • Animals (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Animals)
    • Aviation (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Aviation)
    • Dinosaurs (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Dinosaurs)
    • Earth (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Earth)
    • Inventions (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Inventions)
    • Physical Science (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Physical_Science)
    • Plants (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Plants)
    • Scientists (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Scientists)
  • Social Studies (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Social_Studies)
    • Anthropology (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Anthropology)
    • Economics (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Economics)
    • Government (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Government)
    • Religion (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Religion)
    • Holidays (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Holidays)
  • Space and Astronomy
    • Solar System (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Solar_System)
    • Planets (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Planets)
  • Sports (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Sports)
  • Timelines (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Timelines)
  • Weather (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Weather)
  • US States (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/US_States)

Information

  • Home Page (http://academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php)
  • Contact Us (http://www.academickids.com/encyclopedia/index.php/Contactus)

  • Clip Art (http://classroomclipart.com)
Toolbox
Personal tools