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Vojvodina

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Autonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina
Аутономна Покрајина Војводина

Autonomous Province of Vojvodina
Flag of Vojvodina
Flag of Vojvodina
Missing image
Vojvodina_02.jpg
Coat of Arms of Vojvodina


Coat of Arms of Vojvodina
Map showing Vojvodina within the state union Template:Serbia and Montenegro 2
Official languages Serbian, Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn1
Capital Novi Sad
Area
 – Total
 – % water

 21,500 km²
 n/a
Population
 – Total (2002)
 – Density

 2,031,992
 94.51/km²
Ethnic groups
(2002)
Serbs: 65.05%
Hungarians: 14.28%
Slovaks: 2.79%
Croats: 2.78%
Others: 15.1%
Time zone UTC +1
1 All of the official languages are used in the provincial government, Serbian is used in all municipality governments, others are used in selected municipality governments, and few minority languages are used outside official documents

The Autonomous Province of Vojvodina (Serbian: Аутономна Покрајина Војводина/Autonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina, Hungarian: Vajdasg Autonm Tartomny, Slovak: Autonmna Provincia Vojvodina, Romanian: Provincia Autonomă Voivodina, Croatian: Autonomna Pokrajina Vojvodina, Rusyn: Автономна Покраїна Войводина) is the northern province of Serbia. Its capital is Novi Sad and the second largest city is Subotica.

Vojvodina is ethnically diverse, with more than 26 different ethnic groups. It has no less than six official languages, reflecting the region's great cultural and linguistic diversity. The Executive Council of Vojvodina is founder of several newspapers and magazines in Vojvodina's official lagnuages: "Дневник" (Daily news) in Serbian and "Magyar Sz" (Hungarian Word) in Hungarian are daily newspapers, and weekly magazines are "Hrvatska riječ" (Croatian Word) in Croatian, "Hlas Ľudu" (The Voice of the People) in Slovak, "Libertatea" (Freedom) in Romanian and "Руске слово" (Rusyn Word) in Rusyn.

Vojvodina is one of two autonomous provinces of Serbia, the other being Kosovo and Metohija.

Contents

History

See also: Rulers of Vojvodina, History of Serbia

Vojvodina is the Serbian name for the territory of Northern Serbia, consisting of the southern part of the Pannonian Plain. Throughout history it has been a part of Dacia, the Roman Empire, the Hun Empire, the Avar Khanate, the Gepid Kingdom, the Byzantine Empire, Bulgaria, the Kingdom of Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, the Austrian Empire, Austria-Hungary, the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, Yugoslavia, and finally Serbia & Montenegro.

The name "Vojvodina" in the Serbian language simply means "dukedom". Its historical name was "Serbian Dukedom", but since Vojvodina is now part of Serbia, there is no need for the prefix "Serbian" anymore. The Serbian language uses two more varieties of the word Vojvodina. These varieties are Vojvodovina and Vojvodstvo, which is equivalent to the Polish word wojewodztwo (province).

The area of Vojvodina has been inhabited since the Paleolithic period. Before the Roman conquest in the 1st century BC, the region was inhabited by Illyrian, Thracian and Celtic tribes. The most important Illyrian tribe from this region was the Pannonians. Roman Pannonia was named after them.

, Roman Emperor (249-251), born in village Budalia near
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Traianus Decius, Roman Emperor (249-251), born in village Budalia near Sirmium

Romans conquered this region in the 1st century BC. Opposing the Roman rule, Illyrian tribes started uprising in 6 AD. Leaders of this uprising were Baton and Pines, the first named individuals from the present-day Vojvodina territory recorded in history. Sirmium (Sremska Mitrovica) was an important Roman town. It was the main city of Roman Pannonia and one of four capital cities of Roman Empire. Six Roman Emperors were born in this city or in its surroundings: Decius Traian (249-251), Aurelian (270-275), Probus (276-282), Maximianus Herculius (285-310), Constantius II (337-361) and Gratian (367-383). These emperors were Romanized Illyrians by origin.

The Huns drove the Romans out of Pannonia after A.D. 395. The rule of the Huns lasted a little over half a century, and the region become part of the Byzantine Empire. Pannonia (a province of the Byzantine Empire) existed in Srem in the 6th century; its capital was Sirmium.

During the early medieval migrations, Slavs (Severans, Abodrites, Branicevci, and Serbs) settled today's Vojvodina in the 6th and 7th centuries, but pockets of Romanised Illyrians remained in the area.

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Dukedom of Salan (Vojvodina of Salan)

In the 9th century, what is now Vojvodina was part of Bulgaria. Salan, a Bulgarian duke, ruled the territory of Backa, and his capital city was Titel. Another Bulgarian duke, Glad, ruled in Banat. His residence was city Vidin in the territory of present day Bulgaria. His descendant was Ahtum, duke of Banat, the last ruler who opposed to the establishment of Hungarian kingdom.

In the 11th century, the ruler of Srem was Sermon, a vassal of the Bulgarian emperor Samuil. Sermon produced his own golden coins in present day Sremska Mitrovica. After Bulgarians were defeated by Byzantine Empire, Sermon was captured and killed, because he didn’t want to comply with new authorities.

The Hungarians or Magyars arrived in the Pannonian Plain during the last decade of the 9th century. Hungarian rule was established in the territory of present day Vojvodina beginning in the 10th century. Backa came under Hungarian rule in the 10th century, after Hungarians defeated Salan. Banat came under Hungarian rule in the 11th century after the defeat of Ahtum, and Srem came under Hungarian rule in the 12th century after the Kingdom of Hungary conquered it from the Byzantines. Before the Hungarian conquest, a province of the Byzantine Empire named Theme Sirmium existed in the territory of Srem.

Stefan Dragutin, king of Srem (1282-1316)
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Stefan Dragutin, king of Srem (1282-1316)

Between 1282 and 1316 the Serbian King Dragutin ruled the Kingdom of Srem, which consisted of Srem, Slavonija, Macva, Usora and Soli. His capital city was Debrc (between Belgrade and Šabac). Dragutin was succeeded by his son, King Vladislav II (1316-1325).

Though Serbs were part of the aboriginal Slavic population in the territory of Vojvodina (especially in Srem), an increasing number of Serbs began settling from the 14th century onward. By 1483, according to a Hungarian source, as much as half of the population of the Vojvodina territory of the Kingdom of Hungary at the time consisted of Serbs.

After the Ottoman Empire conquered Serbia (in 1459), Serbian despots ruled in parts of Vojvodina as vassals of the Hungarian kings. The residence of the despots was Kupinik (today Kupinovo) in Srem. The Serbian despots were: Vuk Grgurevic (1471-1485), Djordje Brankovic (1486-1496), Jovan Brankovic (1496-1502), Ivanis Berislav (1504-1514), Stevan Berislav (1520-1535), Radic Bozic (1527-1528), Pavle Bakic (1537) and Stefan Stiljanovic (1537-1540). The last three did not rule in the territory of present day Vojvodina, but had possessions in the territories of present day Romania, Hungary and Croatia. The fact that Despots of Serbia ruled in the territory of present day Vojvodina, but also the presence of large Serbian population, are reasons because in many historical records and maps, which were written and drawn between 15th and 18th centuries, territory of present day Vojvodina was known as Rascia (Raska, Serbia) and Little Raska (Little Serbia).

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"Serbian Empire" of Jovan Nenad

The Ottoman Empire took control of Vojvodina following the Battle of Mohcs of 1526 and the fall of Banat in 1552. This turbulent period caused a massive depopulation of this region. Soon after the Battle of Mohcs, Jovan Nenad, a leader of Serbian mercenaries, established his rule in Backa, northern Banat and a small part of Srem. He created an ephemeral independent state, with Subotica as its capital. At the pitch of his power, Jovan Nenad proclaimed himself "Serbian Emperor" in Subotica. Taking advantage of the extremely confused military and political situation, the Hungarian noblemen from the region joined forces against him and defeated the Serbian troops in the summer of 1527. "Emperor" Jovan Nenad was assassinated and his state collapsed.

During the Ottoman rule, more than 90% of inhabitants of the Vojvodina region were Serbs. In that time, villages were mostly populated with Serbs, while cities were populated with Serbs and Muslims (mostly Turks, but also converted Serbs, among others). The northern parts of the region were populated with Bunjevci. Elayet of Temesvar (Turkish province) existed in Banat after 1552, while the Sanjak of Srem and the Sanjak of Segedin existed in Srem and Backa. In 1594 Serbs in Banat started a large uprising opposing Turkish rule. This was one of three largest Serbian uprisings in history, and the largest one before the First Serbian Uprising led by Karadjordje.

The Habsburg Empire took control of Vojvodina among other lands by the treaties of Karlowitz (1699) and Passarowitz (1718). The areas adjacent to the Turkish territory in the south were incorporated into the Military Frontier (its Slavonian and Banat sections). The Banat was established as a province of Austria in 1718, but this province was abolished in 1778.

The end of Ottoman rule dramatically altered the demographic character of the region, as much of the Serbian population had been decimated through warfare. The Serbian patriarch, Arsenije III Čarnojević, fearing the revenge of the Turks, immigrated in the last decade of the 17th century to the Habsburg Empire with as many as 36,000 families. The Habsburg Emperor promised them religious freedom as well as the right to elect their own "vojvoda" (military governor), and incorporated much of the region where they settled, later known as Vojvodina, into the military border. The emperor also recognized Serbs as one of the official nations of the Habsburg Empire and he recognized the right of Serbs to have territorial autonomy. This right, however, was not realized before the revolution in 1848-1849.

During the Kurucs War (1703-1711) of Francis II Rkczi, the territory of present day Vojvodina was a battlefield between Hungarian rebels and local Serbs who fought on the side of the Habsburg Emperor. Serbs in Backa have suffered the greatest losses. Hungarian rebels burned Serbian villages and many Serbs were expelled from Backa. Darvas, the prime military commander of Hungarian rebels, which fought against Serbs in Backa, wrote: "We burned all large places of Rascia, on the both banks of rivers Danube and Tisa".

During the Austrian rule many colonists settled in the territory of present day Vojvodina. They were mainly (Catholic) Germans and Hungarians, but also Ruthenians, Slovaks, Romanians, and others. The Donauschwaben, or Danube Swabians established many settlements in the area during the reign of Maria Theresa.

Because of this colonization, Serbs lost the absolute ethnic majority in the region, and Vojvodina become one of the most ethnically diverse regions of Europe. However, there was also some emigration from Vojvodina: after the Tisa-Moris section of the military frontier was abolished, Serbs from the northeastern part of Backa left this region and immigrated to Russia in 1752, and this region was then populated with new Hungarian settlers. Many Hungarians come after 1867, when Hungary became autonomous part of Habsburg Empire (Then renamed to Austria-Hungary). Serbs, however, remained the single largest ethnic group in Vojvodina, until the second half of 20th century, when they become the absolute majority again.

The "long 19th century" (1789-1914) was marked by rapid population increase, prosperity, sustained economic development, expansion of the transportation infrastructure, and despite the birth of the various national and reform movements also of relatively peaceful interethnic relations and the reconstruction of the educational system. It was a period of reintegration into Europe, both economically and spirtitually.

Between the 16th and 19th centuries, Vojvodina was the cultural centre of the Serbian people. Especially important cultural centres were: Novi Sad, Sremski Karlovci, and the monasteries of Fruska Gora. In the first half of the 19th century, Novi Sad was the largest Serb city; in 1820 this city had about 20,000 inhabitants, of which 2/3 were Serbs. Novi Sad had an elected mayor that was alternately German or Serb. The Matica Srpska moved to that town from Budapest in 1864. The Serbian gymnasiums of Novi Sad and Sremski Karlovci were at the time considered to be among the best in the Hungarian Kingdom. Novi Sad was being called the "Serb Athens".

This development was only interrupted by the Revolutions in 1848-1849. The human and material losses in the Bačka and Banat regions were the greatest in the entire Habsburg Empire. During the Revolution, the Hungarians demanded national rights and autonomy for them within the Habsburg Empire. However, they did not recognize the national rights of other nationalities which lived in Hungary in that time; according to data from 1842, only 38% of the inhabitants of the Kingdom of Hungary were Hungarians.

Stevan Supljikac (1786-1848), first Duke of Serbian Vojvodina
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Stevan Supljikac (1786-1848), first Duke of Serbian Vojvodina
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Proclaimed borders of Serbian Vojvodina in 1848

Wishing to express their national individuality and confronted with new Hungarian authorities, Serbs declared the constitution of the Serbian Vojvodina (Serbian Dukedom) at the May Assembly in Sremski Karlovci (May 13-15, 1848). The Serbian Dukedom consisted of Srem, Backa, Banat, and Baranja. The Serbs also formed a political alliance with the Croats "based on freedom and perfect equality". They also recognized the Romanian nationality. The metropolitan of Sremski Karlovci, Josif Rajačić, was elected for patriarch, while Stevan Supljikac for the first duke. A National committee was formed as the new government of Serbian Vojvodina. Instead of the old feudal regime a new reign was founded based on the national boards with the Head Serbian national board presiding.

The Hungarian government replied by the use of force: on June 12th 1848, a war between Serbs and Hungarians started. Austria took the side of Hungary at first, demanding from the Serbs to "go back to being obedient". Serbs were aided by volunteers from Serbia. A consequence of this war, was the expansion of the conservative factions. Since the Austrian court turned against the Hungarians in the later stage of revolution, the feudal and clerical circles of Vojvodina formed an alliance with Austria and became a tool of the Viennese government. Serbian troops from Vojvodina then joined the Habsburg army and helped in crushing the revolution in Hungary. With the help of Imperial Russia, the forces of reaction smothered the revolution in the summer of 1849, defeating all the national and social movements in the Habsburg monarchy.

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Vojvodina of Serbia and Tamiš Banat, surrounded in green (Wojwodowina und Banat)

After the defeat of the revolution, by a decision of the Austrian emperor, in November 1849, an Austrian crownland known as Vojvodina of Serbia and Tamis Banat ( German: Woiwodschaft Serbien und Temescher Banat) was formed (consisting of Banat, Backa and Srem). An Austrian governor seated in Temesvar ruled the area, and the title of Duke belonged to the emperor himself. The full title of the emperor was "Great duke of Vojvodina of Serbia" (German: Growoiwode der Woiwodschaft Serbien). Even after this province was abolished, the emperor kept this title until the end of Habsbzrg Empire in 1918. After the Austrian and Hungarian authorities signed an agreement, the development of capitalism and democratic parliamentary rule had the necessary conditions to develop. The Vojvodina's two official languages became German and "Illyrian" (what would become Serbo-Croatian), but in practice it was mainly German.

In 1860 this crownland was abolished and its territory was incorporated into Hungary, although the real Hungarian rule has begun only in 1867, when Hungary became autonomous part of Habsburg Empire. After Vojvodina was abolished, one Serbian politician, Svetozar Miletic, appeared in the political sphere. He demanded national rights for Serbs and other non-Hungarian nationalities of Hungary, and that was the reason why he was arrested and locked up in prison.

During the second half of the 19th century the region's Hungarian, German, Serb, Croat, and Slovak farmers turned it into the most productive agricultural region of the Kingdom, and it's excellent products were exported all over Europe.

At the end of World War I, the Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed. In 1918, Banat Republic was proclaimed in Timisoara, and government of Hungary has recognized its independence, but it was short-lived. After several days, Serbian troops entered Banat, and that was the end of the Banat Republic.

On November 25, 1918 the Serbian Assembly of Novi Sad proclaimed the union of Vojvodina with the Kingdom of Serbia.

Between 1929 and 1941, Dunavska banovina (Danubian Banat) was a province of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. The capital city was Novi Sad. Dunavska banovina consisted of Srem, Backa, Banat, Baranja and Sumadija. Population of this region was: Serbs and Croats (56,9%), Hungarians (18,2%), Germans (16,3%).

The Axis Powers occupied region between 1941 and 1944. Backa and Baranja were attached to Hungary, while Srem was attached to the Independent State of Croatia. A smaller Dunavska banovina (including Banat and Sumadija) existed as part of Serbia between 1941 and 1944 whose administrative centre was Smederevo. However, Banat itself was a separate autonomous region ruled by its German minority. The occupying powers committed numerous crimes against the civilian population, especially against Serbs and Jews; the Jewish population of Vojvodina was almost completely killed.

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Vojvodina map

Vojvodina was liberated in 1944 and the region was politically restored in 1945 as a province of Serbia (incorporating Srem, Banat, and Backa). Instead of the previous name (Dunavska Banovina), the region regained its historical name of Vojvodina, while its capital city remained Novi Sad.

It was only nominally autonomous at first but enjoyed extensive rights of self-rule under the 1974 constitution, which also gave it voting rights equivalent to Serbia itself on the country's collective presidency.

Under the rule of the Serbian president Slobodan Milošević, Vojvodina and Kosovo lost most of their autonomy in September 1990. The outbreak of the Yugoslav wars contributed to the increase of ethnic tensions, with many refugee Serbs who were driven from Croatia and Bosnia being resettled in Vojvodina.

The fall of Milošević in 2000 created a new climate for reform in Vojvodina, with the province's ethnic minorities strongly supporting the new democratic government in Belgrade. Following talks between the parties, the province's autonomy was partially restored by the omnibus law in 2002. Vojvodina's new flag was also introduced in 2004.

Some sources for history of Vojvodina

  1. Dr. Aleksa Ivic, Istorija Srba u Vojvodini, Novi Sad, 1929.
  2. Milan Tutorov, Mala Raška a u Banatu, Zrenjanin, 1991.
  3. Drago Njegovan, Prisajedinjenje Vojvodine Srbiji, Novi Sad, 2004.
  4. Lazo M. Kostic, Srpska Vojvodina i njene manjine, Novi Sad, 1999.
  5. Radmilo Petrovic, Vojvodina, Beograd, 2003.
  6. Predrag Medovic, Praistorija na tlu Vojvodine, Novi Sad, 2001.
  7. Jovan M. Pejin, Iz prošlosti Kikinde, Kikinda, 2000.
  8. Peter Rokai, Zoltan Djere, Tibor Pal, Aleksandar Kasas, Istorija Madjara, Beograd, 2002.
  9. Nikola Gavrilovic, Srbi i Rumuni: Srpsko-Rumunske veze kroz vekove : zbornik radova, Prometej, 1997.
  10. Karl von Mller, Die Werschetzer Tat, 1938.
  11. Georges G. Mironesco, Le Probleme Du Banat, Paris, 1919.
  12. Severe Bocou, Question Du Banat, Paris, 1919.
  13. Rupert von Schumacher, Des Reiches Hofzaun - Geschichte der deutschen Militrgrenze im Sdosten.
  14. Martinović Z., Nemački uticaj na ishranu Srba u Banatu, Mali Nemo.
  15. Spasović Ivana, Banatska vojna granica i njeno ukidanje 1872. godine, Istorijski arhiv u Pančevu.

Geography

The region is traditionally divided by the Danube and Tisa rivers into: Bačka in the northwest, Banat in the east and Srem in the southwest. A small part of the Mačva region is also located in Vojvodina, in the Srem District. Today, the western part of Srem is in Croatia, the northern part of Bačka is in Hungary, the eastern part of Banat is in Romania (with a small piece in Hungary), while Baranja (which is between the Danube and the Drava) is in Hungary and Croatia. Vojvodina has a total surface area of 21,500 km² (8,299 mi²).

Districts

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Districts in Vojvodina

The districts of Serbia in Vojvodina are:

Demographics

Main article: Demographic history of Vojvodina

Population by national or ethnic groups:

Population by mother tongue:

Population by religion:

Population by gender:

  • 984,942 males
  • 1,047,050 females

Population by age groups:

  • 0-14 years: 15.85% (165332 males, 156873 females)
  • 15-64 years: 68.62% (693646 males, 700416 females)
  • 65 years and over: 15.53% (125964 males, 189761 females)

Source: Republic Statistical Office of Serbia (http://www.statserb.sr.gov.yu/Ter/epop.htm)

Politics

There are several regionalist political parties in Vojvodina. Some of those are: League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina, Reformists of Vojvodina, Vojvodina Coalition, Vojvodinian Movement, Union of Socialists of Vojvodina.

Current president of Vojvodinian government is Bojan Pajtić (Democratic Party), while president of Vojvodinian parliament is Bojan Kostreš (League of Social Democrats of Vojvodina).

See also

External links



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Republics: Serbia | Montenegro

Autonomous provinces of Serbia: Kosovo and Metohija | Vojvodina

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