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Xia Dynasty

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History of China
series
The Three August Ones and the Five Emperors
Xia Dynasty
Shang Dynasty
Zhou Dynasty
Spring and Autumn Period
Warring States Period
Qin Dynasty
Western Han Dynasty
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Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period
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edit (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/wiki.phtml?title=Template:History_of_China&action=edit)

The Xia Dynasty (Template:Zh-cpw), ca. 2033 BC1562 BC, is the first dynasty to be described in Chinese historical records, which record the names of seventeen kings over fourteen generations. The legends of the Three August Ones and the Five Emperors precede this dynasty, and it is followed by the Shang dynasty.

Until scientific excavations were made at early bronze-age sites at Anyang, Henan Province, in 1928, it was difficult to separate myth from reality in regard to the Xia. But since then, and especially in the 1960s and 1970s, archaeologists have uncovered urban sites, bronze implements, and tombs that point to the existence of Xia civilization in the same locations cited in ancient Chinese historical texts. At a minimum, the Xia period marked an evolutionary stage between the late neolithic cultures and the typical Chinese urban civilization of the Shang dynasty. In the Marxist history common in mainland China, Xia society is considered a slave society (奴隸社會).

Xia Dynasty resumed hereditary monarchy from the legendary Yellow Emperor times, and began the period of a family or a clan controlling everything in the nation (家天下). It was also during this period that the Chinese civilization developed a ruling structure that employed both a benign civilian government (文治) and harsh punishment for legal transgressions (刑罰). From this the earliest forms of Chinese legal codes came into being.

Jie, the last ruler, was said to be a corrupt king. He was overthrown by T'ang, the leader of Shang people from the east.

Sovereigns of the Xia dynasty

Posthumous Names ( Shi Hao 諡號)1
Order Reign2 Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Notes
01 45 also Yu the Great (大禹; d yǔ)
02 10  
03 29 太康 Ti Kāng 
04 13 仲康 Zhng Kāng 
05 28 Xiāng  
06 21 少康 Shǎo Kāng  
07 17 Zh  
08 26 Hui  
09 18 Mng  
10 16 Xi  
11 59 不降 B Jing  
12 21 Jiōng  
13 21 Jǐn Guoyu: jn, putonghua: jǐn
14 31 孔甲 Kǒng Jiǎ  
15 11 Gāo  
16 11  
17 52 Ji also Lu Gui (履癸 lǚ guǐ)
1 The reign name is sometimes preceded by the name of the dynasty, Xia (夏), for example Xia Yu (夏禹).
2 Possible length of reign, in years.

See also

fr:Dynastie Xia ja:夏 (三代) no:Xia-dynastiet fi:Xia-dynastia sv:Xiadynastin zh:夏朝

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