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Yoga Sutras of Patanjali

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This is an article about the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali. For general information on sutras, see Sutra. For a list of Hindu sutras, see List of sutras.
Contents

Introduction

The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali are one of the six darshanas of Hindu or Vedic schools and, alongside the Bhagavad Gita and Hatha Yoga Pradipika, are a milestone in the history of Yoga. The book is a set of aphorisms, which are short, terse phrases designed to be easy to memorize. Though brief, the Yoga Sutras are an enormously influential work that is just as relevant for yoga philosophy and practice today as it was when it was written.

To understand the work's title, it is necessary to consider the meanings of its two component words. The Sanskrit word Yoga, as used by Patanjali, refers to a state of mind where thoughts and feelings are held in check. Sutra means "thread". This is a reference to the thread of a mala, upon which (figuratively speaking) the yoga aphorisms that make up the work's content are strung like beads. For that reason the title is sometimes rendered in English as the Yoga Aphorisms.

Traditionally, the most prominent commentary is that of Vyasa, to whose work Vachaspati Misra has contributed an explanation of Vyasa's commentary.

Authorship

There is some confusion as to which Patanjali was the author of this book. Some have identified him with a grammarian by the same name, but the grammarian's dates do not match the age of the work as determined by the internal evidence. It is safe to assume that the Sutras were written somewhere between 1,700 and 2,200 years ago, although they may have existed long before that in unwritten form. Tradition has it that Patanjali is the compiler, but not author, of the Yoga Sutras. Before Patanjali wrote them down, they were learnt by memory and passed down from teacher to student through generations.

Nonetheless, Patanjali is a major figure among the great Hindu thinkers by any measure and, though not the father of yoga per se, he is certainly the father of Raja Yoga as its compiler.

Philosophical Roots and Influences

The Yoga Sutras are built on a foundation of Samkhya philosophy and the Bhagavad Gita. In the Yoga Sutras, Patanjali prescribes adherence to eight "limbs" or steps (the sum of which constitute "Ashtanga Yoga", the title of the second chapter) to quiet one's mind and merge with the infinite. These eight limbs not only systematized conventional moral principles espoused by the Bhagavad Gita, but elucidated the practice of Raja Yoga in a more detailed manner.

For their part, the Yoga Sutras form the theoretical and philosophical base of all Raja yoga. It can still today be considered the most organized and complete definition of the Raja Yoga discipline. Moreover, the "eight-limbed" path espoused by Patanjali has formed the foundation for much of Tantra Yoga (a Hindu deific, Shiva-Shakti yoga system) and Vajrayana Buddhism (Buddhist Tantra Yoga) that came after Raja Yoga.

The Eight Limbs of Raja Yoga

The eight "limbs" or steps are: Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, Pratyahara, Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi. A number of commentators break these eight steps into two categories. Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pranayama, and Pratyahara comprise the first category. The second category, called Samyama is comprised of Dharana, Dhyana and Samadhi. The division between the two categories exists because in latter three mentioned steps there is no cognizance whereas in the first five steps cognizance exists.

"Since there is no cognizance to these three stages (ed. Dharana, Dhyana, Samadhi), they are not bound by time or succession. The result is that they exist independently and also exist simultaneously. Any one, two or three can exist at the same time. When the three stages exist simultaneously then it is called (ed. Samyamah) the simultaneous existence."
Taken from the commentary on Patanjali Sutra III.4 by Master E.K.
"The Yoga of Patanjali" Master E.K.; Kulapathi Book Trust ISBN 81-85943-05-2

Patanjali divided his Yoga Sutras into 4 chapters or books (Sanskrit pada), containing in all 195 aphorisms, divided as follows:

  • Samadhi Pada (51 sutras)
    Samadhi refers to a blissful state where the yogi is absorbed into the One. The author describes yoga and then the means to attaining samadhi. This chapter contains the most famous verses: "Atha yoga anusasanam" ("Yoga begins with discipline") and "Yogas citta vritti nirodha" ("Yoga is control of citta vrittis" - i.e., thoughts and feelings).
  • Sadhana Pada (55 sutras)
    Sadhana is the Sanskrit word for "practice". Here the author outlines two forms of Yoga: kriya yoga (action yoga) and ashtanga yoga (eightfold yoga). Kriya yoga, sometimes called karma yoga, is reflected in the philosophy of the Bhagavad Gita, Chapter 3, where Arjuna is encouraged to act without attachment to the results of action. It is the yoga of selfless action or as some have observed, of service. Ashtanga yoga consists of the following levels:
    • Yama = abstentions
      These are 5 in number
      • ahimsa = abstention from violence = non-violence to all beings
      • satya = abstention from lying = truth
      • asteya = abstention from theft
      • brahma charya = abstention from sexual activity = continence
      • aparigraha = abstention from possessions
      These also are 5 in number:
      • Saucha = purity
      • Santosha = contentment
      • Tapas = austerities
      • Svadhyaya = study
      • Ishvarapranidhana = surrender to God
    • Asana - Postures of the body
    • Pranayama - Control of prana or vital breath
    • Pratyahara - Abstraction; "is that by which the senses do not come into contact with their objects and, as it were, follow the nature of the mind." - Vyasa
    • Dharana - Fixing the attention on a single object; concentration
    • Dhyana - Meditation
    • Samadhi - Super-conscious state or trance
  • Vibhuti Pada (55 sutras)
    Vibhuti is the Sanskrit word for "power" or "manifestation". This book describes the "higher" states of awareness and the techniques of yoga to attain them.
  • Kaivalya Pada (34 sutras)
    Kaivalya literally means "isolation", but like most Sanskrit words, used technically, this translation is misleading. In this sense it means emancipation, liberation, used interchangeably with moksha (liberation), which is the goal of Yoga.

External links

Appendix: English Translation of the Yoga Sutras

The following is a translation of The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali.

Book I : Consciousness and Superconsciousness (Samadhi Pada)

  1. Now to explain yoga.
  2. Yoga is the cessation (nirodha) of the modes of mind (chitta vritti).
  3. Then consciousness takes on its true nature.
  4. At other times consciousness is identified with the modes of mind.
  5. There are five such modes which can either be painful or not painful.
  6. The modes are right knowledge, wrong knowledge, imagination, dreamless sleep and memory.
  7. The sources of right knowledge are by direct perception, or by logical analysis, or from the testimony of authorities.
  8. Wrong knowledge is a false interpretation not corresponding with the actual nature of the object.
  9. Imagination is the ideas which arise from knowledge conveyed by words.
  10. Dreamless sleep is the mode of mind during the natural absence of a conscious object.
  11. Memory is the calling up of an object from past experience.
  12. The control of these modes is achieved by practice (abhyasa) and nonattachment (vairagya).
  13. Practice is concentrated effort to keep the mind steady.
  14. It becomes firmly grounded when carried out for a long time without interruptions and with earnest attention.
  15. Nonattachment is the consciousness of being free from desires for worldly things either experienced or heard about.
  16. The highest nonattachment comes from the knowledge of the Soul ( Purusha ) [See Samkhya philosophy ] which brings victory over the three modes of material nature (gunas - Tamas, Rajas and Sattva).
  17. The first level of superconsciousness (samprajnata samadhi) is attained progressively in four stages. These are by questioning, by discrimination, by the experience of supreme bliss, and finally by the realisation of the unity of the universe with consciousness.
  18. In the higher level (asamprajnata samadhi) there is an absence of all modes of mind and only subconscious impressions (samsaras) are retained in the mind. This comes from the constant practice of the highest type of nonattachment.
  19. Its inferior form is attained by those who are beyond consciousness of the body but become merged in Nature (prakritilayanam)
  20. For others this samadhi is attained by total trust, great energy, recollection, regular practise of meditation, and discriminative knowledge.
  21. This samadhi is soon achieved by those who practise intensively.
  22. Even these will gain superior results depending on whether they do mild, moderate, or extremely intensive practice.
  23. Perfection is also attained by devotion to the Lord (Ishvara pranidhanad).
  24. Ishvara is a special Purusha untouched by afflictions, actions and their results, or unconscious tendencies.
  25. In Ishvara the seed of knowledge is developed to its utmost limit.
  26. Being beyond time Ishvara is the Master of masters.
  27. The word expressing Ishvara is Aum (or OM).
  28. One should constantly repeat and listen attentively to Aum while meditating on its meaning.
  29. From this comes the awakening of a higher consciousness, and also the destruction of the obstacles to meditation.
  30. The obstacles, or mental distractions, are sickness, laziness, doubt, lack of attention and enthusiasm, lack of energy, sensuality, false perception, and failure to attain or maintain concentration.
  31. The symptoms of a distracted mind are grief, anxiety, trembling, and irregular breathing.
  32. To overcome these symptoms one should meditate on one particular truth (ekatattva).
  33. By cultivating feelings of friendship toward the happy, compassion toward the unhappy, joy toward the virtuous, and indifference toward the wicked, the mind becomes purified and calm.
  34. Also the mind becomes calm by regulating the expulsion and retention of the breath (pranayama).
  35. Or the mind becomes controlled and stable through the changes produced by extraordinary sense perceptions.
  36. Or by meditating on the shining Inner Light (jyotismatee) which is beyond all suffering.
  37. Or by meditating on one who has attained desirelessness.
  38. Or by meditating on the subconscious knowledge gained from dreams or dreamless sleep.
  39. Or by meditating on anything which particularly appeals.
  40. By such meditations the yogi gains mastery over all from the atomic to the infinite.
  41. The yogi whose mind retains only one object of concentration becomes identified with either the knowable object, the method of knowing, or the knower, as pure crystal becomes coloured by objects placed nearby.
  42. The first stage of this mode of concentration is when the name, meaning, and knowledge of an object are intermingled. This is called superconsciousness "with questioning" (savitarka samadhi).
  43. The second stage, superconsciousness "beyond questioning" (nirvitarka samadhi), is attained when memory is so controlled that the object of concentration is known directly without interference from memories of it.
  44. Two higher stages of superconsciousness where the object of concentration is a subtle element (suksam visayam) are explained in a similar way. These are superconsciousness "with meditation" (savichara samadhi) and superconsciousness "beyond meditation" (nirvichara samadhi).
  45. The province of the subtle elements extends up to the very essence of Nature ( prakriti ). [See Book I:16 link.]
  46. All these stages of superconsciousness are called samadhis "with seed".
  47. With the pure flow of consciousness in nirvichara samadhi comes a spiritual clarity.
  48. And in this stage discriminative knowledge becomes identical with natural law.
  49. Because this discriminative knowledge is specific and complete, it differs in essence from knowledge gained from scriptures or by logical analysis.
  50. The mental impression arising from nirvichara samadhi prevents all other impressions.
  51. With the control even of that impression all impressions cease and that samadhi is called "without seed" (nirvikalpa samadhi).

Book II : Ways To Attain Yoga (Sadhana Pada)

  1. Practical ways to attain Yoga (union of consciousness with the Infinite) are through ascetic disciplines (tapas), study and meditation on Aum (Svadhyaya), and by devotion to the Lord (Ishvara). [Refer to Book I:23-28.] These are the preliminary steps (kriya yoga).
  2. The purpose of kriya yoga is to bring about superconsciousness and to weaken the afflictions.
  3. The afflictions are ignorance, ego-consciousness, desire, aversion, and the clinging-to-life instinct.
  4. Ignorance is the cause of the other afflictions whether they are dormant (exist in potential form in the subconscious), weakened (rendered non-operative through meditation), overpowered (the yogi counters them by cultivating the opposite tendencies), or fully operative.
  5. Ignorance is regarding the non-eternal as eternal, the impure as pure, the distressing as pleasurable, and the not-Self as Self.
  6. Ego-consciousness is the apparent identification of the Perceiver with the instruments of perception.
  7. Desire is that which dwells upon pleasure.
  8. Aversion is that which dwells upon pain.
  9. The clinging-to-life instinct, springing up of its own nature, remains even in the wise.
  10. When the afflictions are in potential form they should be overcome by resolving them into their natural cause (prakriti).
  11. The gross effects produced by the afflictions in their fully operative form should be overcome by meditation.
  12. The result of past experience of the afflictions is that tendencies (karmas) are stored in the subconscious mind which causes suffering both in this life and the life to come.
  13. As long as the storehouse of karmas exists, they will bear fruit in the next birth, length of life, and experiences of pleasure and pain.
  14. These fruits will result in pleasure or pain according as to whether their cause is from virtue or vice.
  15. But, to the discriminating yogi, all material experience is considered painful since by the three material modes (guna vritti) the painful consequences of change, anxiety, and new tendencies (samsaras) happen.
  16. What is to be avoided is pain not yet come.
  17. The cause of avoidable pain is the identifying of the experiencer with the object of experience.
  18. The objective world has the nature of illumination, activity, and stability ( ie. the three modes of material nature (gunas)), and comprises the physical elements as well as the senses. Its purpose is for the sake of experience and the liberation of the experiencer.
  19. The four aspects of Nature are gross (or general), subtle (or specialised), the once resolvable (or primal) and the irresolvable (or unevolved).
  20. The Seer (Purusha), although pure consciousness only, sees through the senses and mind which becomes coloured by the object. [Refer to Book I:16,41]
  21. The visible universe exists for the sake of the Seer.
  22. Although the visible universe has ceased to exist for those who have achieved enlightenment, it still exists because it is common to all other experiencers.
  23. The relationship between the Seer and Nature (Prakriti) is that of the owner and the owned, and this causes identification of the Self and not-Self. [See Book I:16 link.]
  24. The cause of that identification is ignorance.
  25. When this ignorance is absent the identification is also removed, and the Seer attains liberation (kaivalya).
  26. This ignorance (and consequent identification) is removed by unwavering discriminative knowledge of the Seer and Nature.
  27. The yogi develops this perfect knowledge through seven stages.
  28. The practice of the things subservient to Yoga gives the light of knowledge which destroys the impurities preventing complete discriminative knowledge.
  29. The things subservient to Yoga (called the eight limbs of yoga) are :
    1. Yama - ethical restraints
    2. Niyama - ethical observances
    3. Asana - postures
    4. Pranayama - breath and prana control. [See vital currents ].
    5. Pratyahara - control of the senses by the withdrawal of prana from them
    6. Dharana - single-point concentration
    7. Dhyana - unbroken concentration (meditation)
    8. Samadhi - superconsciousness.
  30. The yamas are nonviolence (ahimsa), truthfulness (satya), non-stealing (asteya), continence (bramacharya), and nonpossessiveness (aparigraha).
  31. The practice of these is not limited by rank, place, time, or circumstance. They are the universal great vows.
  32. The niyamas are purity (saucha), contentment(santosha), ascetic disciplines (tapas), study and meditation, and devotion to Ishvara. [Refer to Book II:1 concerning kriya yoga.]
  33. To counteract destructive attitudes one should cultivate thoughts of the opposite kind.
  34. These destructive attitudes, as for example thoughts of violence, whether they are done, caused to be done, or merely approved of; whether motivated by greed, anger, or preceded by ignorance; and whether mild, moderate, or extreme will result in infinite suffering and ignorance. Therefore one should cultivate thoughts of the opposite kind.
  35. When nonviolence is firmly established then all living beings will cease to feel enmity in one's presence.
  36. When truth is firmly established then all actions will bear fruit.
  37. When non-stealing is firmly established then all prosperity approaches.
  38. When continence is firmly established then vigor is gained.
  39. When nonpossessiveness is firmly established then knowledge of former lives is gained.
  40. From purity comes protection of one's own body and disinclination for contact with others.
  41. On the purification of the conscious mode of illumination (sattva) one obtains serenity, power of single-point concentration, control of the senses, and fitness for direct perception of Self.
  42. Contentment brings supreme happiness.
  43. Ascetic disciplines bring perfection of the body and senses due to the destruction of impurities.
  44. By study and meditation comes a direct realisation of one's preferred Deity.
  45. By devotion to Ishvara comes the perfection of meditation (samadhi). [Refer to Book I:23-28]
  46. Postures (asanas) should be steady and pleasant.
  47. Asanas are mastered by relaxed effort and remaining unaware of the body.
  48. From that one is no longer disturbed by the dualities (ie. pairs of opposites such as hot/cold, pleasure/pain, etc.)
  49. On asanas being mastered there follows control of the movements of inspiration and expiration which is called pranayama.
  50. Modes of pranayama are when the breath is restrained externally (ie. after expiration), or internally (ie. after inspiration), or totally (ie. in mid-motion). Each mode is regulated by place (ie. the place in the body the prana is held), by the length of time held, and by the number of times performed, which can either be long or short.
  51. The fourth mode of pranayama is breath or prana restraint between the outer and inner spheres. [Requires commentary]
  52. From the mastery of pranayama comes the removal of ignorance covering the light of higher consciousness.
  53. And fitness of mind for single-point concentration (Dharana).
  54. When the psychic energy used by the senses is withdrawn from their sense-objects, then it becomes identical to mental energy. This process is called pratyahara.
  55. From that comes supreme control over the senses.

Book III : Powers (Vibhuti Pada)

  1. Dharana is focussing the attention of the mind on a particular place or object.
  2. When in Dharana the flow of thought becomes continuous it is called dhyana.
  3. When in Dhyana the object of concentration is seen in its own light free from distortion by the mind it is called samadhi.
  4. These three operating together is called Samyama.
  5. From the mastery of that comes the light of discriminative knowledge.
  6. The application of discriminative knowledge is to discover higher and higher states.
  7. These three constitute internal or direct means to Yoga in comparison with the first five limbs (called the external means).
  8. But these three are external means compared to the samadhi "without seed" (nirvikalpa samadhi). [Refer to Book I:51]
  9. By conscious control the non-meditative state (vyutthana) disappears as a wave of mental control is generated. The moment of control when the mind is concerned with both states is called the mode of control (nirodhaparinamah).
  10. When this mode becomes a uniform flow the mind is peaceful due to its inherent nature.
  11. When the mind reaches the mode of samadhi (samadhiparinamah) the apparent multiplicity of the universe disappears and its unity arises.
  12. When the mind reaches the mode of one-pointedness (ekagrataparinamah) the mental wave that has subsided is similar to the wave that has risen.
  13. In a similar way the three-fold changes in form, character, and state regarding the elements and senses are explained.
  14. A substance (dharmi) is that which undergoes changes in properties (dharma) either past, present, or yet to come.
  15. The effects of the succession of changes becomes the cause of subsequent changes.
  16. By Samyama on the three-fold change already explained one gains knowledge of the past and future.
  17. By Samyama on the distinction between the name, the object named, and its idea - three aspects normally considered intermingled - comes understanding of the sounds of all living beings.
  18. By Samyama on subconscious impressions (samsara) one gains knowledge of previous lives.
  19. By Samyama on mental processes one gains knowledge of the minds of others.
  20. But not the contents of other minds as the aim is not to be identified with the lives of others.
  21. By Samyama on the form of the body the power of observing that form is checked as its light is displaced from the eyes of an observer. This is called the power of concealment.
  22. Also by this the power of the concealment of speech is explained.
  23. By Samyama on actions (karma) which will bear fruit either soon or much later, or from the portents of extraordinary happenings, comes knowledge of the time of death.
  24. By Samyama on friendliness, compassion, etc. [refer to Book I:33] arises the fruits of these attitudes.
  25. By Samyama on various powers such as the strength of an elephant one obtains this strength.
  26. By Samyama on the shining Inner Light [refer to Book I:36] comes knowledge of what is subtle, hidden, or remote.
  27. By Samyama on the sun comes knowledge of the world.
  28. By Samyama on the moon comes knowledge of the star systems.
  29. By Samyama on the pole star comes knowledge of the motions of the stars.
  30. By Samyama on the navel comes knowledge of the systems of the body.
  31. By Samyama on the hollow of the throat one stills hunger and thirst.
  32. By Samyama on the nerve called kurma (situated below the hollow of the throat) comes complete firmness of body.
  33. By Samyama on the shining light from the aperture in the skull comes direct perception of perfected beings (siddha).
  34. Or by Samyama on the light of intuitive knowledge (pratibhad) comes all knowledge (ie. discriminative knowledge).
  35. By Samyama on the heart comes knowledge of the content of minds.
  36. Enjoyment comes from a failure to discriminate between the conscious mode of illumination (sattva) and Purusha. These are absolutely different because sattva exists for the sake of Purusha. By doing Samyama on the independence of Purusha comes knowledge of the nature of Purusha. [See Book I:16 link.]
  37. From that Samyama comes supernatural perceptions of hearing, sensation of touch, vision, taste, and smell.
  38. These are obstacles to samadhi, but supernatural powers in the non-meditative state (vyutthana).
  39. By the relaxation of the causes of bondage (bandha), and by knowledge of the flow of vital currents and of the mind (chitta), one obtains the power of entry into the bodies of others.
  40. By controlling the vital current udana (through Samyama) one can pass over water, mud, thorns, etc. and leave the body at will.
  41. By controlling the vital current samana (through Samyama) one appears surrounded by blazing light.
  42. By Samyama on the relationship between the ear and space (akasha) comes supernatural hearing.
  43. By Samyama on the relationship between the body and space, the body becomes as light as cotton and one can walk through the air.
  44. By Samyama on that mode of mental activity external to the body, called the great disembodiedness (mahavideha), comes the destruction of the covering of the light of consciousness.
  45. By Samyama on their gross nature (sthula), their essential attributes (svarupa), their subtle nature (suksama), their relative qualities (anvaya), and their purposes (arthavattva), comes mastery over the elements (bhuta).
  46. From that mastery comes the eight great perfections (mahasiddhi), excellence of the body, and a consciousness of its indestructible qualities.
  47. Excellence of the body consists in complexion, beauty, strength, and hardness like adamant.
  48. By Samyama on the properties of the senses which are specialised receptivity (grahana), their essential attributes (svarupa), knowledge of self (asmita), their relative qualities (anvaya), and their purposes (arthavattva), comes mastery over the senses.
  49. From that one obtains speed of mind (ie. power to move the body as quickly as the mind), the power of perception without the bodily senses, and victory over nature. [These are called the honey-like perfections (madhupratika) - from commentary by Vyasa.]
  50. By Samyama on the conscious principle (sattva) as manifested by the internal instrument (antakarana), comes discriminative knowledge of sattva and Purusha. From this one gains supremacy over all existence and distinctive knowledge of all entities. [This is called "free from suffering" (visoka) - from commentary by Vyasa.]
  51. By nonattachment to even these powers comes the destruction of the seed of bondage leading to liberation (kaivalya).
  52. When allured by celestial beings [ie. beings who have become "merged in Nature" - see Book I:19] one should neither form any attachments nor show amazement as this could again lead to ignorance.
  53. By Samyama on indivisible moments of time and their order comes discriminative knowledge [refer to Book II:27].
  54. From that one can discriminate between two similar objects which cannot be distinguished by class, particular properties, or position.
  55. This saving (ie. from the bondage of ignorance) discriminative knowledge includes all objects and every aspect of them simultaneously.
  56. When the conscious principle sattva and Purusha have equal purity, then liberation (kaivalya) is attained.

Book IV : Liberation (Kaivalya Pada)

  1. Supernatural powers may be obtained either through birth, or by using drugs, or through (sacred) chants (mantra), or by ascetic disciplines (tapas), or from the superconscious state (samadhi).
  2. Change from one class to another comes from the inflow of nature.
  3. Deeds are not the actual cause of this change, but they break the obstacles holding back the flow of nature just as a farmer can open an irrigation gate allowing the water to flow through.
  4. Mindstuff (chittam) is created from the material of self-consciousness (asmita). [Requires commentary.]
  5. The multiple activities of the numerous created minds are controlled by the original mind.
  6. Only the mind attained through meditation is free from desires.
  7. The actions (karma) of yogis are neither pure nor dark; for others they are either pure, pure and dark, or dark.
  8. From the storehouse of drives (karmas) only those tendencies arise which are able to bear fruit.
  9. There is a consecutiveness between memory and subconscious impressions (samsara), which are not different, although separated by class, space, and time.
  10. These impressions have no beginning since desires are eternal.
  11. All these impressions are hold together by cause (the afflictions and their results [refer to Book II:3]), effect (experiences of pleasure and pain [refer to Book II:13]),substratum (the mind itself which "supports" the impressions), and object (the sense-objects which give rise to the impressions); in the absence of these the impressions are destroyed.
  12. Objects retain their essential nature, but there is a change in qualities from past to future.
  13. The qualities are either manifested or subtle, being of the nature of the three material modes.
  14. Because of the unity of changes in the gunas, there is unity in all objects.
  15. Objects remain the same although perceived differently by different minds.
  16. And an object cannot be said to be dependent on a single mind, since in the absence of that mind what would then happen to the object?
  17. An object is either known or unknown to the mind according as the mind is affected or not affected by its coloring.
  18. Because Purusha - the master of mind - is not affected, all modes of mind are always known to it.
  19. Mind is not self-luminous because it is knowable.
  20. And it is not possible for the mind to perceive both itself and sense-objects at the same time.
  21. If part of the mind was knowable by another part then that part would be knowable by a third part and so on, which would result in a confusion of memories.
  22. The Purusha, although itself changeless, is reflected in the understanding mind which thereby takes the form of the pure intelligence of Purusha.
  23. The mind colored by the Seer (Purusha) and the seen is able to understand all the objective universe.
  24. Although equipped and variegated with innumerable tendencies and impressions, the mind exists for the sake of another (ie. the Purusha) because it operates in association.
  25. For one with subtle perception the (false idea of the ) identity of mind and Purusha completely ceases.
  26. Surely at that time the mind of one with such discriminative knowledge becomes serene and directed towards liberation (kaivalya).
  27. The other thoughts that arise in the intervals of that mind are from the subconscious impressions (samsaras).
  28. The removal of these is in the same manner as described for the afflictions. [Refer to Book II:10]
  29. When one is free from desire for any fruit even in the state of highest illumination, then from constant and continuous knowledge comes that state of consciousness called "the cloud of virtue" (dharmameghah samadhi).
  30. From that comes the cessation of the afflictions and the fruits of works.
  31. And at that time because of the infiniteness of the knowledge of that mind free of all coverings from the afflictions, the knowable universe appears small.
  32. Then, having fulfilled their purpose, the successive modes of material nature (gunas) comes to an end.
  33. The succession of changes consists of an uninterrupted sequence of moments which are recognized as distinct at the end (of a series) of changes.
  34. Liberation (kaivalya) is when the three modes of material nature, no longer needed for the sake of Purusha, are resolved into their original state (prakriti), or when the energy of consciousness is established in its own nature. [Refer to Book I:3]
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