Friday the 13th

From Academic Kids

There is also a series of Friday the 13th movies, and a TV series called Friday the 13th: The Series.

Template:Wiktionarypar A Friday occurring on the 13th day of any month is considered to be a day of bad luck in many superstitions around the globe. Similar superstitions exist in some other traditions. In Spain, for example, Tuesday the 13th takes the same role. The fear of Friday the 13th is called paraskavedekatriaphobia or paraskevidekatriaphobia, a specialized form of triskaidekaphobia, a phobia (fear) of the number thirteen.

Contents

Origins

The origin of the Friday the 13th superstition has been linked to the fact there were 13 people at the last supper of Jesus, who was crucified on Good Friday, but it probably originated only in medieval times. It has also been linked to the fact that a lunisolar calendar must have 13 months in some years, while the solar Gregorian calendar and lunar Islamic calendar always have 12 months in a year. Another suggestion is that the belief originated in a Norse myth about twelve gods having a feast in Valhalla. The mischievous Loki gate-crashed the party as an uninvited 13th guest and arranged for Hod, the blind god of darkness, to shoot Baldur, the god of joy and gladness, with a mistletoe-tipped arrow. Baldur was killed and the Earth was plunged into darkness and mourning as a result.

Some also say that the arrest of Jaques de Molay, Grand Master of the Knights Templar, and 60 of his senior knights on Friday, October 13, 1307 by King Philip IV of France, is the origin of this superstition. That day thousands of Templars were arrested and subsequently tortured. They then 'confessed' and were executed. From that day on, Friday the 13th was considered by followers of the Templars as an evil and unlucky day.

Effects

Strangely, there is evidence to suggest that Friday the 13th is actually unlucky for some. Psychologists have found that some people are especially likely to have accidents or fall ill on Friday the 13th. This has been attributed to such people feeling a heightened state of anxiety on that day. The Stress Management Center and Phobia Institute in Asheville, North Carolina estimates that in the United States alone, $800 or $900 million is lost in business each Friday the 13th because some people will not travel or go to work. [1] (http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/02/0212_040212_friday13.html)

The date is also well-known in the motorcycle (biker) community: since 1981, motorcycle enthusiasts and vendors gather every Friday the 13th in Port Dover, Ontario, Canada. This tradition started on November 13, 1981 by Chris Simons as a gathering of approximately 25 friends. The event has grown substantially, with an estimated 100,000 people attending in August 2004, as well as music bands, vendors, a bike show, etc. [2] (http://www.pd13.com)

In the Spanish-speaking world, it is Tuesday the 13th (as well as Tuesdays in general) that brings bad luck; a proverb runs En martes, ni te cases ni te embarques (on Tuesday, neither get married nor start a journey).

Occurrence

The following months have a Friday the 13th:

This sequence, here given for 2000-2027, repeats every 28 years from 1901 to 2099. The months with a Friday the 13th are determined by the Dominical letter of the year. All months whose first day falls on a Sunday will contain a Friday the 13th.

Because the Gregorian Calendar 400-year cycle has a whole number of weeks, it is not possible for exactly 1 in 7 months to have a Friday the 13th. In fact, the 13th is more likely to be a Friday than any other day of the week.

Over any given 400-year cycle the 13th day of the month occurs 4800 times. The distribution of 13th day of the month is as follows:

  • Monday ( 685 or 14.27% ),
  • Tuesday ( 685 or 14.27% ),
  • Wednesday ( 687 or 14.31% ),
  • Thursday ( 684 or 14.25% ),
  • Friday ( 688 or 14.34% ),
  • Saturday ( 684 or 14.25% ),
  • Sunday ( 687 or 14.31% ).

This means the 13th day of the month is only slightly more likely to occur on a Friday!

External links

How Friday the 13th works (http://people.howstuffworks.com/friday-thirteenth.htm)

de:Freitag der 13. eo:Vendredo la 13-a fi:Perjantai 13. päivä fr:Vendredi 13 id:Jum'at Ketigabelas he:יום שישי ה-13 nl:Vrijdag de dertiende ja:13日の金曜日 pt:Sexta Feira 13 sl:Petek trinajstega sv:Fredagen den 13

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