Kaddish

From Academic Kids

For the poem by Allen Ginsberg, see Kaddish (poem)

Kaddish (קדיש) is a collective term, used to refer to a number of different but related prayers in Judaism, although by itself, the term is often used to refer specifically to "The Mourner's Kaddish". When mention is made of "saying Kaddish", as part of the mourning rituals (sitting shiva) or the commemoration ceremonies (yahrtzait), the reference is to the Mourner's Kaddish, and is unambiguous.

In the liturgy, the Kaddish is used functionally as a separator between various sections of the service. The central theme of the Kaddish is the magnification and sanctification of God's name. Most of the Kaddish is written in Aramaic, which at the time of the original Kaddish's composition, was the lingua franca of the Jewish people. The exception to this is that the Mourner's, Rabbis' and Complete Kaddish end with a supplication for peace, which is in Hebrew, and comes from the Bible.

The various versions of the Kaddish (sometimes spelled Qaddish) are:

  • Chatzi Kaddish (חצי קדיש)
    • Literally "Half Kaddish"
  • Kaddish Yatom (קדיש יתום)
    • Literally "Orphan's Kaddish", although commonly referred to as the "Mourner's Kaddish" (קדיש אבלים)
  • Kaddish Shalem (קדיש שלם)
    • Literally "Complete Kaddish" or "Whole Kaddish"
  • Kaddish deRabbanan (קדיש דרבנן)
    • Literally "Kaddish of the Rabbis"
  • Kaddish acher haKivura (קדיש אחר הקבורה)
    • Literally "Kaddish after a Burial"
    • Also said after a Siyum, a collection of prayers recited on the completion of a Sefer, a Jewish holy book.

Most versions of the Kaddish begin with the (complete) Chatzi Kaddish. (There are some additional passages in the Kaddish after a Burial.) The portions that follow that basic formula have led to their having been given the names by which we now know them. The Kaddish, as used in the services, are chanted. The cantillation varies depending on the version as well as on the service itself. While the Chatzi Kaddish generally has a distinctively upbeat melody, the Mourner's Kaddish is recited slowly and contemplatively.

After the Shema, Amidah, and Aleinu, the Kaddish is the most important and central blessing in the Jewish prayer service. The Jewish Encyclopedia (http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/)'s Kaddish article (http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=7&letter=K) mentions an additional type of Kaddish, called "Kaddish Yachid", or "Individual's Kaddish".

Contents

Text of the Mourner's Kaddish

(a) יתגדל ויתקדש שמה רבא. אמן בעלמא די ברא כרעותה וימלך מלכותה, בחייכון וביומיכון ובחיי דכל בית ישראל, בעגלא ובזמן קריב. ואמרו אמן. אמן
(b) יהא שמה רבא מברך לעלם ולעלמי עלמיא.
(c) יהא שמה רבא מברך לעלם ולעלמי עלמיא.
(d) יתברך וישתבח ויתפאר ויתרומם ויתנשא ויתהדר ויתעלה ויתהלל שמא דקדשא
(e) בריך הוא
(f) לעלא מן כל
(g) לעלא ולעלא מכל
(h) ברכתא ושירתא תשבחתא ונחמתא, דאמירן בעלמא. ואמרו אמן. אמן
(i) יהא שלמא רבא מן שמיא, וחיים
(j) טובים
(k) עלינו ועל כל ישראל. ואמרו אמן. אמן
(l) עשה שלום במרומיו, הוא יעשה שלום עלינו, ועל כל ישראל. ואמרו אמן. אמן

Another version

יתגדל ויתקדש שמה רבא בעלמא די ברא כרעותה וימלך מלכותה, בחייכון וביומיכון ובחיי דכל בית ישראל, בעגלא ובזמן קריב. ואמרו אמן. יהא שמה רבא מברך לעלם ולעלמי עלמיא. יתברך וישתבח ויתפאר ויתרומם ויתנשא ויתהדר ויתעלה ויתהלל שמא דקדשא בריך הוא לעלא מן כל ברכתא ושירתא תשבחתא ונחמתא, דאמירן בעלמא ואמרו אמן. .יהא שלמא רבא מן שמיא, וחיים טובים עלינו ועל כל ישראל ואמרו אמן .עשה שלום במרומיו, הוא יעשה שלום עלינו, ועל כל ישראל ואמרו אמן

Chatzi Kaddish

Chatzi Kaddish consists of sections (a) through (h).

Mourner's Kaddish

The most well known form is the "Mourner's Kaddish", said at all prayer services, as well as at funerals and memorials.

Customs for reciting the Mourner's Kaddish vary markedly among various communities. In Reform temples, it is customary that everyone in the synagogue stands to support the mourners. However, in Conservative and Orthodox synagogues, the custom is that only the mourners themselves stand and chant, while the rest of the congregation sits, responding in all the normal places. This is according to Sephardic custom. Orthodox and Conservative Ashkenazi Judaism require everyone to stand.

Template:JewishLifeCyclehe:קדיש ja:カッディーシュ nn:Kaddsj

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