Karantanians

From Academic Kids

Caranthanians (Latin Quarantani, Slovenian Karantanci) were the only Alpine Slavs in the early middle ages and the first ethnic name of an old Slovenian people as a separate part of the Slavs (Latin Sclavi qui dicuntur Quarantani, Slavs called Caranthanians).

After the disintegration of Samo's realm, they established the duchy of Caranthania (independent from 660 to 745, partly independent to 820), in the Eastern Alps. They were among the direct ancestors of modern Slovenians.

Caranthanians were also the first Slavic people who accepted Christianity from the West. At the beginning of 9th century they settled also Pannonia inferior or Lower Pannonia, so the name Caranthanians spread there too (Latin Carantanorum regio, 819).

Name Caranthanians (Quarantani) lasts to 13th century, but in scriptures at the end of 9th c. we also find name Slovens (Sloveni) and for the land Slovenia. Caranthanians were the name a bit later changed to Slovenci (Slovenians). They spoke Old Slovenian (a very archaic form of Slovenian) we find today only in the very first preserved Slavic scripture written in the Latin script caled Freising Manuscripts, Slovenian Brizinski spomeniki, and lived in Slavic "župas", parts of early middle ages duchies, and zadrugas, joint families. Mysterious Kosezes (Kasazes, Lat. at first Kosentzez, German Edlinger (noble people), Lombardian Arimanni (members of a special warrior class)) were a subject of much debate. They were probably a private army of the Caranthanian duke.

References

  • Bogo Grafenauer, Ustoličevanje koroških vojvod in država karantanskih Slovencev / Die Kärntner Herzogseinsetzung und der Staat der Karantanerslawen, Slovenska akademija znanosti in umetnosti (Academia scientiarum et artium Slovenica, Classis I: Historia et sociologia), Ljubljana 1952
  • Bogo Grafenauer, Zgodovina slovenskega naroda. Zv. 1, Od naselitve do uveljavljenja frankovskega reda (z uvodnim pregledom zgodovine slovenskega ozemlja do naselitve alpskih Slovanov), Državna založba Slovenije, Ljubljana 1978
  • Bogo Grafenauer (ed. Peter Štih), Karantanija: izbrane razprave in članki, Slovenska matica, Ljubljana 2000
  • Hans-Dietrich Kahl, Der Staat der Karantanen - Fakten, Thesen und Fragen zu einer frühen slawischen Machtbildung im Ostalpenraum (7.-9. Jh.) / Država Karantancev - dejstva, teze in vprašanja o zgodnji slovanski državni tvorbi v vzhodnoalpskem prostoru (7.-9. stol.), Narodni muzej Slovenije (Situla: Dissertationes Musei nationalis Sloveniae) and Slovenska akademija znanosti in umetnosti, Ljubljana 2002
  • Paola Korošec, Alpski Slovani / Die Alpenslawen, Znanstveni inštitut Filozofske fakultete, Ljubljana 1990
  • Katja Škrubej, "Ritus gentis" Slovanov v vzhodnih Alpah, ZRC 2002 (with English Summary)
  • Peter Štih, Vasko Simoniti, Slovenska zgodovina do razsvetljenstva, Mohorjeva družba v Celovcu, Ljubljana 1995

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