Table of Ranks

From Academic Kids

Table of Ranks (Табель о рангах; Tabel o rangakh) was a formal list of positions and ranks in military, government, and court of the Imperial Russia. It was introduced by Peter the Great in 1722 in his struggle with the existing hereditary nobility, or boyars.

The Table of Ranks determined a person's position and status according to service to the emperor (tsar) rather than to birth or seniority. The Table places every military, civil or court rank in accordance with fourteen grades, ranked from 1 to 14. Every officer of state had to qualify for the corresponding grade in order to be promoted; the grades of 1 to 5 were personal matter of the Emperor.

Even commoners who achieved a certain level on the Table were ennobled automatically. A civil officer promoted to 14th grade was entitled to personal nobility (dvoryanstvo), while 8th grade created him a hereditary noble; military offices enjoyed hereditary nobility starting right with 14th grade (in 1856, the grades required for hereditary nobility were shifted up to 4th grade for civil service and 6th grade for military service). For example, Vladimir Lenin's father progressed in the management of people's education up to the rank of Actual Civil (State) Counsellor (действительный статский советник) (1874), which gave him a privilege of hereditary nobility.

The origins of the Table lie in Russian military ranks, which were extensively modified by Peter the Great with addition of many distinct ranks and specialities. The first variant of the Table included definition and placement of as many as 262 civil and military positions. By the end of 1700s, these were removed in favour of universal grade rank (классный чин). Svita titles such as General-Adjutant, Fliegel-Adjutant etc. do not belong to the Table; these are personal courtesy titles of Emperor's aide-de-camps.

The Table of Ranks was in force until the Russian Revolution.

Grade (класс) Civil ranks (чины статские) Court ranks (чины придворные) Style of address
I Канцлер (Chancellor)
Действительный тайный советник 1-го класса (Actual Privy Counsellor, 1st class)
none Его/Ваше высокопревосходительство (His/Your High Excellency)
II Действительный тайный советник (Actual Privy Counsellor) Обер-камергер (Chief Chamberlain)

Обер-гофмаршал (Chief Steward Marshal)
Обер-шталмейстер (Chief Stable Master)
Обер-егермейстер (Chief Hunt Master)
Обер-гофмейстер (Chief Staff Master)
Обер-шенк (Chief Vine Master)
Обер-церемониймейстер (Chief Ceremonial Master) (since 1844)

III Тайный советник (Privy Counsellor)

Гофмаршал (Steward Marshal)
Шталмейстер (Stable Master)
Егермейстер (Hunt Master)
Гофмейстер (Staff Master)
Обер-церемониймейстер (Chief Ceremonial Master) (1801-1844)
Обер-форшнейдер (Chief Portion Steward)
(since 1856)

Его/Ваше превосходительство (His/Your Excellency)
IV Действительный статский советник (Actual Civil Counsellor) Камергер (Chamberlain) (1737-1809
V Статский советник (Civil Counsellor) Церемониймейстер (Ceremonial Master) Его/Ваше высокородие (His/Your High Ancestry)
VI Коллежский советник (Collegiate Counsellor) Камер-фурьер (Chamber Farrier) (until 1884)

Камергер (Chamberlain) (until 1737)

Его/Ваше высокоблагородие (His/Your High Nobleness)
VII Надворный советник (Court Counsellor) (since 1745) -
VIII Коллежский асессор (Collegiate Assessor) Гоф-фурьер (Steward Farrier)
IX Титулярный советник (Titular Counsellor) - Его/Ваше благородие (His/Your Nobleness)
X Коллежский секретарь (Collegiate Secretary) -
XI Корабельный секретарь (Ship Secretary) Камер-юнкер (Chamber Junker)
XII Губернский секретарь (Gubernial Secretary -
XIII Кабинетский регистратор (Office Registrar)

Провинциальный секретарь (Provincial Secretary)
Сенатский регистратор (Senate Registrar) (since 1764)
Синодский регистратор (Synod Registrar) (since 1764)

-
XIV Коллежский регистратор (Collegiate Registrar) -

Collegiate refers to a system of Government Departments (коллегия, College) created by Peter the Great.

For military and Guards ranks, see Russian military ranks and Russian Imperial Guard.


Related article

External links

fi:Tabel o rangah ru:Табель о рангах

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